8.1.2 Project costs
Recurrent costs have been listed for each case study where cost information wasavailable. The total recurrent costs listed include the following:• annual maintenance of the system• electricity costs• disinfection costs (where applicable)• irregular costs (where applicable – including pump replacement, replacement of sand
lter media, dredging of sedimentation ponds, etc.)• monitoring costs.Life-cycle costs have been calculated for all projects where cost data was available, usingthe simpli
ed method described in section 5.1.4.
8.2 Comments on case studies
To provide a context for the case study summaries, the following paragraphs aim to:• summarise the nature of the projects• compare common characteristics• evaluate project outcomes.These comments apply to all of the case studies excepting Prince Henry Development,Little Bay (incomplete). Considerations for future projects are summarised in appendix A.
8.2.1 Nature of the projects
There are clear differences between the objectives of a trial or demonstration projectand an operational project. The latter should have quantitative objectives establishedduring the planning stage as part of a broader integrated urban water cycle managementstrategy.Rather than aiming to achieve a speci
ow or pollutant reduction target, the reuseprojects pro
led here were predominantly pilot projects, to promote the concept of stormwater reuse, or demonstration projects showing how a particular stormwater treatment technique could be used. None of the projects were identi
ed as part of anintegrated water cycle management strategy, in which a reuse project is part of a larger series of water management measures aiming to meet speci
8.2.2 Common characteristics
While all schemes include common elements of collection, storage, treatment anddistribution, they differ in their details. The type of reuse in these case studies ispredominantly the irrigation of public open space and sporting
elds.Disinfection was incorporated in the treatment process in only two of the twelve pro
ledprojects. As noted in section 6, disinfection should be considered for schemes wheretreated stormwater is to be used in publicly accessible areas.Most of the projects have only limited resources allocated for on-going water qualitymonitoring, while in some projects there is no monitoring. The limited water quality dataavailable for these projects indicates that faecal coliform levels for some schemes aregenerally higher than those suggested as criteria in table 6.4 for uncontrolled publicaccess (using the conversion between faecal coliform and
levels in appendix C).