Roosevelt UniversityManagement Theories & Practices in Hospitality Industry:MotivationA Research Paper Submitted to:Professor Gerald F. Bober Manfred Steinfeld School of Hospitality and Tourism ManagementHospitality and Tourism Management (BSHTM)By:Manerly SalvatoreFebruary 22, 2010MOTIVATION
“The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees and todo this the manager should be able to motivate employees” (ACCEL Team Development, 2010).Even though it look simple and easy, motivation practice and theory are actually difficultsubjects. According to ACCEL Team Development (2010), “In spite of enormous research, basicas well as applied, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practiced” (para. 2)“Understanding what constitutes human motivation has been a centuries old puzzle,addressed as far back as Aristotle” (Williams, 2010, para. 2). There are many notable researcherssuch as Robert Owen, Jeremy Bentham, Abraham Maslow, Rensis Likert, Frederick Hezberg,Elton Mayo, Victor Vroom, Clayton Alderfer, David Mclelland, J. Stacey Adams, B.F. Skinner,and Edwin Locke have tried to solve this puzzle, thus contributed to the many different theoriesof motivation. Some of those academic theories about motivation were listed and overviewed byChanging Mind Organization(2010):•Acquired Needs Theory: We seek power, achievement or affiliation.•Affect Perseverance: Preference persists after disconfirmation.•Attitude-Behavior Consistency: Factors that align attitude and behavior.•Attribution Theory: We need to attribute cause, that supports our ego.•Cognitive Dissonance: Non-alignment is uncomfortable.•Cognitive Evalution Theory: We select tasks based on how doable they are.•Consistency Theory: We seek the comfort of internal alignment.•Control Theory: We seek to control the world around us.•Disconfirmation Bias: Agreeing with what supports beliefs and vice versa.•ERG Theory: We seek to fulfill needs of existence, relatedness and growth.
•Escape Theory: We seek to escape uncomfortable realities.•Expectancy Theory: We are motivated by desirable things we expect we can achieve.•Extrinsic Motivation: External: Tangible rewards.•Goal-Setting Theory: Different types of goals motivate us differently.•Intrinsic Motivation: Internal: Value-based rewards.•Investment Model: Our commitment depends on what we have invested.•Opponent-Process Theory: Opposite emotions interact.•Positive psychology: What makes us happy.•Reactance Theory: Discomfort when freedom is threatened.•Self-Determination Theory: External and internal motivation.•Self-Discrepancy Theory: We need beliefs to be consistent.•Side Bet Theory: Aligned side-bets increase commitment to a main bet.•The Transtheoretical Model of Change: Stages in changing oneself.One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. In 1943, Maslow proposed that, “People aremotivated by five level of needs: physiological, safety belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization“ (as cited in Williams, 2006, p. 378). However, many other researchers and scholarsdoes not clearly support Maslow’s theory, although it remains popular among managers.Thus, although different in their analysis and opinions of the best motivationmanagement to be applied, most of those researchers agreed that motivation is a very importantaspect in management and also performance is considered to be a function of ability and