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BIND 9 Administrator ReferenceManual
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Copyrightc
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. (”ISC”)Copyrightc
2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 Internet Software Consortium.Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any purpose with or without fee ishereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in allcopies.THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ”AS IS” AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARDTO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY ANDFITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, ORCONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OFUSE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERTORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE ORPERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.2
 
Contents
1 Introduction9
1.1 Scope of Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91.2 Organization of This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91.3 Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91.4 The Domain Name System (DNS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101.4.1 DNS Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101.4.2 Domains and Domain Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101.4.3 Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101.4.4 Authoritative Name Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111.4.4.1 The Primary Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111.4.4.2 Slave Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111.4.4.3 Stealth Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111.4.5 Caching Name Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121.4.5.1 Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121.4.6 Name Servers in Multiple Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2 BIND Resource Requirements13
2.1 Hardware requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132.2 CPU Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132.3 Memory Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132.4 Name Server Intensive Environment Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132.5 Supported Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
3 Name Server Configuration15
3.1 Sample Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153.1.1 A Caching-only Name Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153.1.2 An Authoritative-only Name Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153.2 Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163.3 Name Server Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173.3.1 Tools for Use With the Name Server Daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173.3.1.1 Diagnostic Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173.3.1.2 Administrative Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173.3.2 Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
4 Advanced DNS Features21
4.1 Notify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214.2 Dynamic Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214.2.1 The journal le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214.3 Incremental Zone Transfers (IXFR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224.4 Split DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224.4.1 Example split DNS setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234.5 TSIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254.5.1 Generate Shared Keys for Each Pair of Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264.5.1.1 Automatic Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264.5.1.2 Manual Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264.5.2 Copying the Shared Secret to Both Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264.5.3 Informing the Servers of the Key’s Existence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264.5.4 Instructing the Server to Use the Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274.5.5 TSIG Key Based Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274.5.6 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274.6 TKEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274.7 SIG(0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284.8 DNSSEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283

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