374 1–3
In the present case, for example, we deduce that
π
(2
2
y
)
≥
[
y
]
> y
−
1
and so, setting
x
= 2
2
y
,
π
(
x
)
≥
log
2
log
2
x
−
1
>
loglog
x
−
1
.
for
x >
1
. (We follow the usual convention that if no base is given then
log
x
denotes the logarithm of
x
to base
e
.)The
PrimeNumberTheorem
(whichweshallmakenoattempttoprove)assertsthat
p
n
∼
n
log
n,
or, equivalently,
π
(
x
)
∼
x
log
x.
This states, roughly speaking, that the probability of
n
being prime is about
1
/
log
n
. Note that this includes even numbers; the probability of an
odd
number
n
being prime is about
2
/
log
n
. Thus roughly 1 in 6 odd numbers around
10
6
areprime; while roughly 1 in 12 around
10
12
are prime.(The Prime Number Theorem is the central result of
analytic number theory
since its proof involves complex function theory. Our concerns, by contrast, liewithin
algebraic number theory
.)There are several alternative proofs of Euclid’s Theorem. We shall give onebelow. But ﬁrst we must establish the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic (theUnique Factorisation Theorem) which gives prime numbers their central rˆole innumber theory; and for that we need Euclid’s Algorithm.
1.2 Euclid’s Algorithm
Proposition 1.1
Suppose
m,n
∈
N
, m
= 0
. Then there exist unique
q.r
∈
N
such that
n
=
qm
+
r,
0
≤
r < m.
Proof
For uniqueness, suppose
n
=
qm
+
r
=
q
m
+
r
,
where
r < r
, say. Then
(
q
−
q
)
m
=
r
−
r.
The number of the right is
< m
, while the number on the left has absolute value
≥
m
, unless
q
=
q
, and so also
r
=
r
.We prove existence by induction on
n
. The result is trivial if
n < m
, with
q
= 0
, r
=
n
. Suppose
n
≥
m
. By our inductive hypothesis, since
n
−
m < n
,
n
−
m
=
q
m
+
r,