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Anonymous - Elementary Number Theory and Primality Tests

Anonymous - Elementary Number Theory and Primality Tests

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08/24/2010

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Chapter 1The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
1.1 Prime numbers
If 
a,b
Z
we say that
a
divides
b
(or is a divisor of 
b
) and we write
a
|
b
, if 
b
=
ac
for some
c
Z
.Thus
2
|
0
but
0
  
2
.
Definition 1.1
The number 
p
N
is said to be
prime
if 
p
has just 2 divisors in
N
 ,namely 1 and itself.
Note that our definition excludes 0 (which has an infinity of divisors in
N
) and1 (which has just one).Writing out the prime numbers in increasing order, we obtain the
sequence of  primes
2
,
3
,
5
,
7
,
11
,
13
,
17
,
19
,...
which has fascinated mathematicians since the ancient Greeks, and which is themain object of our study.
Definition 1.2
We denote the
n
th prime by
p
n
.
Thus
p
5
= 11
, p
100
= 541
.It is convenient to introduce a kind of inverse function to
p
n
.
Definition 1.3
If 
x
R
we denote by
π
(
x
)
the number of primes
x
:
π
(
x
) =
{
 p
x
:
p
prime
}
.
Thus
π
(1
.
3) = 0
, π
(3
.
7) = 2
.
Evidently
π
(
x
)
is monotone increasing, but discontinuous with jumps at eachprime
x
=
p
.1–1
 
374 1
Theorem 1.1
(Euclid’s First Theorem)
The number of primes is infinite.Proof 
Suppose there were only a finite number of primes, say
 p
1
,p
2
,...,p
n
.
Let
=
p
1
 p
2
···
 p
n
+ 1
.
Evidently none of the primes
p
1
,...,p
n
divides
.
Lemma 1.1
Every natural number 
n >
1
has at least one prime divisor.Proof of Lemma
The smallest divisor
d >
1
of 
n
must be prime. For otherwise
d
would have a divisor
e
with
1
< e < d
; and
e
would be a divisor of 
n
smallerthan
d
.
By the lemma,
has a prime factor
p
, which differs from
p
1
,...,p
n
.
Our argument not only shows that there are an infinity of primes; it shows that
 p
n
<
2
2
n
;
a very feeble bound, but our own. To see this, we argue by induction. Our proof shows that
 p
n
+1
 p
1
 p
2
···
 p
n
+ 1
.
But now, by our inductive hypothesis,
 p
1
<
2
2
1
, p
2
<
2
2
2
, ..., p
n
<
2
2
n
.
It follows that
 p
n
+1
2
2
1
+2
2
+
···
+2
n
But
2
1
+ 2
2
+
···
+ 2
n
= 2
n
+1
1
<
2
n
+1
.
Hence
 p
n
+1
<
2
2
n
+1
.
It follows by induction that
 p
n
<
2
2
n
,
for all
n
1
, the result being trivial for
n
= 1
.This is not a very strong result, as we said. It shows, for example, that the 5thprime, in fact 11, is
<
2
2
5
= 2
32
= 4294967296
.
In general, any bound for
p
n
gives a bound for
π
(
x
)
in the opposite direction,and vice versa; for
 p
n
x
π
(
x
)
n.
 
374 13
In the present case, for example, we deduce that
π
(2
2
y
)
[
y
]
> y
1
and so, setting
x
= 2
2
y
,
π
(
x
)
log
2
log
2
x
1
>
loglog
x
1
.
for
x >
1
. (We follow the usual convention that if no base is given then
log
x
denotes the logarithm of 
x
to base
e
.)The
PrimeNumberTheorem
(whichweshallmakenoattempttoprove)assertsthat
 p
n
n
log
n,
or, equivalently,
π
(
x
)
x
log
x.
This states, roughly speaking, that the probability of 
n
being prime is about
1
/
log
n
. Note that this includes even numbers; the probability of an
odd 
number
n
being prime is about
2
/
log
n
. Thus roughly 1 in 6 odd numbers around
10
6
areprime; while roughly 1 in 12 around
10
12
are prime.(The Prime Number Theorem is the central result of 
analytic number theory
since its proof involves complex function theory. Our concerns, by contrast, liewithin
algebraic number theory
.)There are several alternative proofs of Euclid’s Theorem. We shall give onebelow. But first we must establish the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic (theUnique Factorisation Theorem) which gives prime numbers their central rˆole innumber theory; and for that we need Euclid’s Algorithm.
1.2 Euclid’s Algorithm
Proposition 1.1
Suppose
m,n
N
, m
= 0
. Then there exist unique
q.r
N
such that 
n
=
qm
+
r,
0
r < m.
Proof 
For uniqueness, suppose
n
=
qm
+
r
=
q
m
+
r
,
where
r < r
, say. Then
(
q
q
)
m
=
r
r.
The number of the right is
< m
, while the number on the left has absolute value
m
, unless
q
=
q
, and so also
r
=
r
.We prove existence by induction on
n
. The result is trivial if 
n < m
, with
q
= 0
, r
=
n
. Suppose
n
m
. By our inductive hypothesis, since
n
m < n
,
n
m
=
q
m
+
r,

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