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P. 1
6.1 - Digestion

6.1 - Digestion

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Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology on digestion
IB Biology on digestion

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: IB Screwed on Aug 21, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/19/2014

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6.1
 –
 Digestion
6.1.1 - Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential
When we eat food, the carbohydrates and other molecules are very
large and insoluble
. They would not be able to pass through the cell membranes to get into the bloodstream. Digestion breaks them down into smaller molecules that are soluble and can be taken up into the bloodstream. These smaller molecules can then be used to build up the macromolecules necessary for the function of our bodies. For example, large polypeptides are broken up into their amino acids, which are then used to build up new proteins.
6.1.2 - Explain the need for enzymes in digestion
An
enzyme
 is a biological catalyst which lowers the activation energy in order to speed up a reaction. Each enzyme is specific to a particular substrate molecule, so a number of different digestive enzymes are secreted to be able to break down all the different food types. They are secreted for the
hydrolysis
 of large polymers. These enzymes reach optimum functioning at body temperature. The enzymes lower the activation energy to allow the reaction to proceed more readily, whilst still at body temperature. Without enzymes, we would not be able to digest our food because the temperatures required to break the bonds between the large molecules would be far
too high
 for living organisms. However, without enzymes, the reactions involved in digestion would take place
very slowly at body temperature
, and we would not be able to survive. With them, the rate of reaction is significantly increased to allow for respiration at the necessary rate.
 
6.1.3 - State the source, substrate, products and optimum pH condition for one amylase, on protease and one lipase Salivary Amylase
This enzyme comes from the salivary glands, found in the mouth, and breaks down
polysaccharides
 like amylose, or starch. This is then broken down into
disaccharides
 like maltose and glucose. The optimum pH of this enzyme is roughly neutral: 6.5-7.5.
Pancreatic Lipase
This is sourced from the pancreas and breaks down
fats and oils
, or triglycerides. The result is
fatty acids
 and
glycerol
. The triglycerides form tiny droplets called emulsified lipids. Bile salts must be present for the lipids to be emulsified. This process increases the surface area and exposes the head of the glycerol molecule to allow the enzymes to act on it. The optimum pH of lipase is 7.0.
 
Pepsin
This is a protease found among the gastric juices in the
stomach
. It works best at pH 2.0. It breaks down large polypeptide chains into smaller peptides. This is done through the hydrolysis of the peptide bonds in the chain.

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