Fig. 1(a), the shunt converter loses its rectification capabilitywhen the maximal source voltage becomes lower than thedc-link voltage. Therefore, the series converter requires alarge dc capacitor as an energy-storage element intended for feeding active power to it. On the other hand, in Fig. 1(b),no voltage drop appears at the load-side or at the acterminals of the shunt converter when a voltage flicker occurs at the source-side because the series converter compensates the voltage flicker. This makes it possible tokeep the shunt converter active in regulating the dc link voltage, even for long-duration voltage flickers. In this case,the active power required for voltage flicker compensation isinjected from the shunt converter to the series converter. Inother words, the dc capacitor does not play any role infeeding active power required for compensation to the seriesconverter. This system configuration allows the use of anextremely small dc capacitor intended for smoothing thecommon dc-link voltage. Thus, the DVR in Fig. 1(b) canoperate properly independent of duration (long or short) of voltage flickers.In this paper, the configuration of DVR based on theFCM converter is proposed to increase the number of outputvoltage levels and as a results, reduce the output voltageTHD. A 7-level FCM converter is shown in Fig. 2. Inaddition to transformer-less operation and the natural self- balancing ability of FCM converter, redundancy in thenumber of combinations required to obtain a desired voltagelevel and reduction in the semiconductor losses are the other advantages of this converter , , . Because of mentioned properties, in this paper a 7-level FCM converter,as shown in Fig. 4, is adopted for use in DVR. As shown inFig. 2, there are two dc capacitors for dc link of each single phase FCM converter, therefore for three single-phase FCMconverters, six dc capacitors are required. While, as shownin Fig. 4, in this configuration only one dc link is used for three single-phase FCM converters. As a result, the requireddc capacitors for dc link are decreased from six to two.For producing 7-level output voltage with the cascademulticell (CM) converter and only one dc link capacitor,which is obtained from shunt rectifier, it is essential to usethree CM converters for each phase. Also, because of existence of only one dc link capacitor, it is required to usethree isolation transformers for each phase. While in thesame conditions, using an FCM converter causes to reducethe number of isolation transformers for each phase fromthree to one. As a result, the cost and size of the DVR isdecreased.III.
Flying Capacitor Multicell Converter Control Strategy
Self-balancing of the flying capacitors voltages occursnaturally without any feedback control. A necessarycondition for self-balancing is that the average flyingcapacitors currents must be zero. As a result, each cell must be controlled with the same duty cycle and a regular PhaseShifted Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (PS-SPWM) inwhich the phase shift between the carriers of each cell is:
is the number of cells. The PS-SPWM for the 7-level FCM converter is shown in Fig. 3 in which the
symbol dedicates the modulation index.
Fig. 1. DVR configuration by installing the shunt converter at the: (a)source-side; (b) load-side.Fig. 2. Configuration of 7-level flying capacitor multicell converter.
Generally, an output RLC filter (balance booster circuit)is needed to accelerate the self-balancing process. This filter,which consists of a resistance, inductance and a capacitanceconnected in series, accelerates the self balancing processand is connected in parallel with the load. The output RLCfilter is tuned to the switching frequency as follows:
f C L
is the switching frequency,
areinductance and capacitance of the output RLC filter.
Fig. 3. Phase shifted sinusoidal pulse width modulation for 7-level flyingcapacitor multicell converter.
Voltage flickers Compensation Strategy
To avoid tripping of the load, the amplitude and phaseangle of the load voltage has to be restored by the DVR.Different strategies can be used to achieve this goal. Threebasic strategies are the pre-flicker compensation , ,in-phase compensation ,  and the energy-optimizedcompensation strategies , , .
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