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30.Cardias, Fabio[1]

30.Cardias, Fabio[1]

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Published by Fabio Cardias

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Published by: Fabio Cardias on Aug 21, 2010
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08/22/2010

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Bunburyō and Berimbau: cross-cultural psychology of masters of martial artsfrom Brazil-Japan
Cardias, FabioUniversity of São Paulo In this research, martial arts are comprehended as an complex product of the unfolding processof the ancient human hunting practice and from the intra-specie combative behavior, for 
homosapiens
 
sapiens
specie, developed along many historical periods. Some authors as Draeger (1969) and Yoshiaki (2000) has already pointed that the techonology of the human ancienthunting culture, especially styles of archery, was transferred to the attack-defense system of human
versus
human, with different adaptations. Hunting strategies provided several toolswhich lid to the development of instruments of human contend, weapons. These weapons canbe considered extensions of the natural weapons of the human body, for attack and defense,especially when
homo
species reached bipedalism freeing hands to produce stone tools and firecontrol leading further to warrior cultures all over the world. Also, hunting differentiated humansfrom other primates when developing complex tools making and mating behavior for troophunting which gave essential elements to the development of language, religions, stories,legends, and myths. In the other hand, Lorenz´s modern study on ethology pointed significantdifference in the level of agressiveness for hunting other species as food and the agressivenessfor territorial and sexual intra-specie combat, whereas in territorial and sexual combat therewould be higher levels of agressiveness if compared to the agressiveness needed in hunting for food only. Anyway, ethologists stress that the human combative behavior reached dangerouspotential which go further and against the interest of specie conservation, once humantechnology is able to build powerful mass destruction weapons. However, the literature reviewprovide me an interdisciplinar and deeper understanding of the origin of warrior practices ascultures that were spread around the world and in different times. Also, these previous reviewsupported the main theoretical approach in this research that is Gilbert Durand´s archetypologyframework (since 1960). Despite Durand suffered influences from both Carl Jung and GastonBachelard he stressed biological concepts as patterns of behaviors, innate releasingmechanism for instinctive behaviors or fixed action patterns to support the adoption of thepsychological concept of archetype as: innate human predisposition for identical structures or universal images which suffer cultural reinforcement in the form of symbolic means. As primitivehunting and combating, modern martial arts also provide us several stories, legends, heros andmyths. Martial cultures, as focused in this study, have been developed both in Japan and inBrazil during relatively close periods. In the century XV to present day, traditional budō, or martial ways of Japan, was developed during Muromachi (1336-1573) and Edo (1603-1868)Periods, which after Edo to now budō has been popularized and internationalized. In Brazil, it isobserved the development of the capoeiragem, since Colonial (1500-1822) to Republic (1889-now) Periods, which has been large popularized from Republic to now and in recent process of internacionalization. Important to say that both budō and capoeira internationalization hassuffered strong sport fashion bias, despite martial art is not sport, as supported by Japaneseand Brazilian martial art theorists, as Watanabe and Irie, from the so called Tsukuba school, andRêgo and Sodré, from Bahia`s Capoeira schools. The main objective of this research is so tocomprehend and to compare symbols, images, regime of images and archetypes related to twodifferent martial ways by recognizing them into and while analyzing the narratives of life historyof martial art masters from two different cultures, e.g, by the mitocritic as proposed by Durand.The method used to reach the objective was oral life history interview, as proposed by theBrazilian psychologist Bosi (1994). The interviews were conduct among masters of martial arts,being n=2 aikidō aikikai style
 
Japanese masters and n=2 capoeira angola style Brazilianmasters, living in Brazil. The interviews were recorded on digital video disc (DVD). Beforeinterviewing, general research objectives were explained to interviewees. If they accepted inparticipating in the research it was immediatly asked them to sign the term of responsabillity of pos-information formally allowing the interviewer to use data collected by the interview. Endingthese ethical research proceedings, the interview were conduct at suitable place for that. Theinterview consisted of asking the subject to freely report his/her history of life by connecting it tohis/her experience into martial arts. After, transcriptions of the interviews were maden and readseveral times to recognise the anthropoligical trajetory and the personality development of masters of martial arts. Discussion follows as it was possible to identify the symbolic andarchetypical level inside life history collected through interview and by exhausting reading the
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