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Ground Motion Evaluation Procedures for Performance-Based Design

Ground Motion Evaluation Procedures for Performance-Based Design

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earthquake engeneering
earthquake engeneering

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Published by: igunz245200 on Aug 22, 2010
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Ground Motion Evaluation Procedures for Performance-Based Design
Jonathan P. Stewart
Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California, Los Angeles
Shyh-Jeng Chiou
California Department of TransportationSacramento, California
Jonathan D. Bray
Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California, Berkeley
Robert W. Graves and Paul G. Somerville
URS CorporationPasadena, California
Norman A. Abrahamson
Pacific Gas and Electric CompanySan Francisco, California
A report on research conducted under grant no. EEC-9701568 from the National Science Foundation
PEER Report 2001/09Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleySeptember 2001
 
 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Introduction
The principal objective of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is todevelop a sound, scientific basis for performance-based earthquake engineering. Thedevelopment of this methodology includes three vital steps:1. Evaluation of the distribution of ground motion
intensity measures
at a site, givencertain seismological variables (i.e., fault characteristics, position of site relative tofaults, etc.). Intensity measures may consist of traditional parameters such as spectralacceleration or duration, or newly defined parameters found to be useful for particular applications.2. Evaluation of the distribution of system
response
or 
damage measures
, given a particular set of intensity measures. These parameters describe the performance of astructure in engineering terms, such as inter-story drift (e.g., for buildings), plastic hingerotation (e.g., for bridge columns) or slope displacement (e.g., for harbor revetmentslopes).3. Evaluation of the probability of exceeding
decision variables
within a given time period, given appropriate damage measures. Decision variables may include human or collateral loss, post-earthquake repair time, or other parameters of interest to an owner.These three steps in the performance-based design methodology are linked through the theoremof total probability, and the outcome of the analysis is no better than the weakest (or mostuncertain) link in the process. Accordingly, since its inception, PEER has recognized the vitalrole of high-quality ground motion characterization for performance-based design, and hasdeveloped and executed a plan for ground motion research that integrates the strengths of PEER researchers with those of experts in other organizations such as the Southern CaliforniaEarthquake Center (SCEC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).ii
 
Technical Content of Report
The topics associated with a probabilistic evaluation of earthquake ground motions in seismicallyactive regions consist of the following:
Source Characterization
: minimum and maximum magnitude, magnitude-recurrencerelations
 Attenuation Relations
: regression analysis procedures and factors affecting spectralacceleration and other ground motion parameters
 Near-Fault Ground Motions
: rupture directivity and fling step effects
Site Effects
: observational studies of site effects, analysis procedures for one-dimensional ground response, basin response, and topographic effects
Ground Motion Simulation
: elements of simulation methods, example procedures,verification and future use of simulation
Time History Selection
: de-aggregation of hazard, time history selection, and scalingof time histories.The discussion of source characterization and site effects is clear in the above topics. Path effectsare covered within the topic categories of attenuation, near-fault ground motions, and simulation.
Source Characterization
We describe faults as a series of segments (or a single segment) that can either ruptureindividually or in groups. A fault segment is characterized by a length (or area), a probabilitydensity function describing the relative likelihood of the fault producing earthquakes of differentmagnitudes [
 f(m)
], and a long term slip rate.Fault models are constructed so as to only allow moment release between a minimum andmaximum magnitude (denoted as
m
0
and
m
u
, respectively). Minimum magnitude is often takenarbitrarily as five, although smaller values may be appropriate for stiff, brittle structures.Maximum magnitude is related to the stress drop that occurs on faults during earthquakes and thesize (area) of the fault segment. Stress drop is generally observed to be reasonably consistentwithin a given tectonic regime (e.g., active regions such as California) and over a givenmagnitude range, which enables the development of magnitude-area scaling relationships fromiii

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