Background of the studyPneumothorax is the presence of air in the pleural cavity with associated lung collapse. Itis classified into spontaneous (occurring without an obvious preceding event), traumatic(direct or indirect), and iatrogenic. Spontaneous is the commonest condition in generalmedicine and is sub-classified as: (i) primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) occurringin the absence of obvious lung disease and (ii) secondary spontaneous pneumothorax(SSP) was complicating a pre-existing lung disease.
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in patients without underlying pulmonarydisease, classically in tall, thin young men in their teens and 20s. It is thought to be due tospontaneous rupture of subpleural apical blebs or bullae that result from smoking or thatare inherited. It generally occurs at rest, although some cases occur with activitiesinvolving reaching or stretching. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax also occurs duringdiving and high-altitude flying because of unequally transmitted pressure changes in thelung.
Although some view primary spontaneous pneumothorax as more of a nuisance than amajor health threat, deaths have been reported. Secondary spontaneous pneumothoracescan be life threatening, depending on the severity of the underlying disease and the sizeof the pneumothorax. Compared with similar patients without pneumothorax, age-matched patients with COPD have a 3.5-fold increase in relative mortality when aspontaneous pneumothorax occurs. Mortality percentages in patients with COPD andspontaneous pneumothorax vary from 1-17% b.
Rationale and significance of choosing the caseThe researcher decided to choose this because of he wanted to understand more of thenature of this disease and its clinical presentations. Pneumothorax can be a medicalemergencies ±tension pneumothorax, and it can occurs spontaneously especially amongthe age of 18 to 40 years old and it is occurring more in men than women 6:1 for primaryand 3:1 for secondary pneumothorax. Therefore, there is a need for further understandingof pneumothorax through a case study in Malaysia.This is also an opportunity for the researcher to study about spontaneous pneumothoraxin joint hyperflexibility syndrome such as Marfan¶s syndrome and Ehlers-Danlossyndrome patient ±if it is prove to be.