CLINICAL STUDY – PATIENT STUDY
Association between number of cell phone contracts and braintumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States
Richard G. Stock
Received: 28 December 2009/Accepted: 21 June 2010
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010
Some concern has arisen about adverse healtheffects of cell phones, especially the possibility that the lowpower microwave-frequency signal transmitted by theantennas on handsets might cause brain tumors or acceleratethe growth ofsubclinicaltumors. Weanalyzed datafrom theStatistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the UnitedStates, 2000–2004 and 2007 cell phone subscription datafrom the Governing State and Local Sourcebook. There wasa signiﬁcant correlation between number of cell phonesubscriptions and brain tumors in nineteen US states(
0.001). Because increased numbers of bothcell phone subscriptions and brain tumors could be duesolely to the fact that some states, such as New York, havemuch larger populations than other states, such as NorthDakota, multiple linear regression was performed withnumberofbraintumorsasthedependentvariable,cellphonesubscriptions, population, mean family income and meanage as independent variables. The effect of cell phone sub-scriptions was signiﬁcant (
0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (
0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationshipbetween cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence isdisturbing and certainly needs further epidemiologicalevaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limitexposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation.
Cell phoneCell phones were introduced to the U.S. in 1984 but werenot widely adopted until the mid-1990s. By early 2000,the number of subscribers to cell phone services hadgrown to an estimated 92 million in the United Statesand 500 million worldwide. Some concern has arisenabout adverse health effects, especially the possibilitythat the low power microwave-frequency signal trans-mitted by the antennas on handsets might cause braintumors or accelerate the growth of subclinical tumors.Inskip et al. performed a case control study and con-cluded that their data did not support the hypothesis thatthe recent use of cell phones causes brain tumors, but thedata were not sufﬁcient to evaluate the risks among long-term, heavy users . Hardell et al. performed a metaanalysis of two cohort studies and 16 case–control studiesand reported that long-term use (10 years or more) of cell phones long term use has been associated withincreased risk of brain tumors . Myung et al. foundpossible evidence linking mobile phone use to anincreased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case–control studies . A World Health Orga-nization study has shown a signiﬁcantly increased risk of some brain tumors related to use of cell phones for aperiod of 10 years or more . The Interphone StudyGroup found no overall increase in risk of glioma ormeningioma with use of mobile phones; but there weresuggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highestexposure levels, though biases and error prevented acausal interpretation .In the current study we examined the relation of cell phone subscriptions to brain tumor incidence byUS state.
R. G. Stock Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Schoolof Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USAS. Lehrer (
)Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center,Box 1236, New York, NY 10029, USAe-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
J NeurooncolDOI 10.1007/s11060-010-0280-z