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Introduction-Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation on the Nervous System

Introduction-Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation on the Nervous System

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Published by karlmalatesta
Modern medical science has missed a most important etiologic factor in neurological diseases: electromagnetic radiation. While this was a subject commonly studied in the former Soviet Union, medical schools in the Western world have kept this knowledge away from its students. This of course, has been a deliberate action in order to hide the crimes of giant industries against the peoples of the world. Electromagnetic fields have shown tragic effects on each and every organ and tissue of the human body. Nokia, Sony, Eriksson, Motorola, Samsung et. al., have tried to hide this knowledge from Mankind in order to keep this immoral profit flowing into their accounts. Ross Adey´s is a classic that deserves all the due attention because, just like the Glaser List, it precedes the times of the international genocide sponsored by the Electromagnetic Fields Project of the World Health Organisation.
Modern medical science has missed a most important etiologic factor in neurological diseases: electromagnetic radiation. While this was a subject commonly studied in the former Soviet Union, medical schools in the Western world have kept this knowledge away from its students. This of course, has been a deliberate action in order to hide the crimes of giant industries against the peoples of the world. Electromagnetic fields have shown tragic effects on each and every organ and tissue of the human body. Nokia, Sony, Eriksson, Motorola, Samsung et. al., have tried to hide this knowledge from Mankind in order to keep this immoral profit flowing into their accounts. Ross Adey´s is a classic that deserves all the due attention because, just like the Glaser List, it precedes the times of the international genocide sponsored by the Electromagnetic Fields Project of the World Health Organisation.

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Published by: karlmalatesta on Aug 22, 2010
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PART
1.
EFFECTS
N
THE
NERVOUS
YSTEM
INTRODUCTION: EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETICRADIATION ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
W.R.Adey
Brain Research InstituteUniversity o$California
Los
Angeles, California 90024
In common with other biologic tissues, the nervous system responds sharply toraisingorlowering its temperature, regardless
of
the means by which the change isachieved. Absorption of electromagnetic energy is inevitably associated with in-creased temperatures. Depending
on
the wavelength of the radiation and thegeometry of the biologic preparation, significant thermal gradients may be es-tablished over quite small distances within the tissue.
For
these reasons, attentionhas been primarily focused on heating in evaluation of biologic effects of nonionizingradiation. Even a recent review body of the World Health Organization1 decidedafter discussion to dismiss from its concerns possible biologic effects that might oc-cur in the absence of significant heating.It has become clear, however, that interactions with the mammalian centralnervous system can be reliably produced by oscillating electric and electromagneticfields without significant heating of tissues. Actual measurements in both intactbrains and isolated cerebral tissue have shown that these fields are fully effective,with temperature changes of less than
0.1'
C,
and that brain temperature alterationsthat might be attributable to weak low-frequency electric fields that produce
a
va-riety of behavioral and physiologic responses2-* are far below the natural perturba-tions in brain temperature associated with eating, drinking,
or
environmentaltemperature
shift^.^
If this separation
of
so-called thermal from nonthermal effects were merely ataxonomic propriety, necessary as a possible guide to hazardous exposures thatcause actual tissue damage,
no
very exciting prospects would appear to lie ahead infuture research
on
biologic, and particularly central nervous, interactions withnonionizing electromagnetic radiation.
On
the contrary, it now seems that im-pressed oscillating electric fields may be very powerful tools in arriving at an under-standing of quite baffling problems in the structural and functional organization ofthe brain itself. Even from the viewpoint of potentially hazardous interactions, wemust remember that the brain
is
an organ uniquely constructed
of
vast numbers ofexcitable elements and that it may be subtly influenced in ways that havenocounter-part in liver, muscle,orkidney. We should also be aware that uniqueness in thestructuring of brain tissue, as in the elaborate branching of dendritic fields ofcortical neurons and the overlapping and functional contacts between adjacentdendritic fields, does not even occur in other parts of the mammalian centralnervous system.6 We may therefore anticipate that responsiveness to weak elec-tromagnetic fields in cerebral tissue is a manifestation of collective properties of itsnumerous cellular elements, which may
not
be discernible in the separate behaviorof isolated elements.As pointed out elsewhere,? there
is
here a kinship with Heisenberg's uncertaintyprinciple, not
so
much in the effects of measurement
on
the system being measured,but rather in the effects of experimental isolation
of
a tissue or its cellular elements,15
 
16
Annals
New
York
Academy
of
Sciencesin the hope that we may then better discern certain properties. These, in fact, may beminiscule properties of individual elements but substantive in systems as a whole. Inother words, complexity of cerebral tissue may be an inherent and essential quality.These studies of the sensitivity of the brain as a whole to weak electric and elec-tromagnetic fields lead to the striking conclusion that mammalian central nervousfunctions can be modified by electric gradients in cerebral tissue substantially lessthan those known to occur in postsynaptic excitation and also substantially smallerthan those presumed to occur with inward membrane currents at synaptic terminalsduring release of transmitter substances.
For
example, studies by Konig and Anker-muller3 and Weverin Germany, and in
our
own laboratory by Hamera and Gavalasand colleagues,2 have all reported behavioral and electroencephalographic effectswith electric fields at 5-15 Hz with a peak amplitude of
2-10
V/m in air. Behavioraleffects included shortening of human reaction times,
of
human circadian rhythms,and of subjective estimates of the passage of time in the monkey. Measurements inphantom monkeys in
our
studies showed that currents to ground of
0.8
nA were in-duced by the fields. Although no precise measurement of the intracerebral electricgradient produced by these fields has
so
far been technically feasible,
if
we assume aspecific impedance for brain tissue at these frequencies of the order of
300
fl-cm,’the expected electric gradient would be between
0.1
and
0.01
pV/cm in a monkeybrain with a conducting cross section of approximately
10
cm2 and a maximumlinear dimension of
7
cm in the axis of a field of
10
V/m.
Our
experiments suggestthat this intensity may
be
close to threshold for discernible behavioral and elec-trophysiologic effects.Neither these observations nor models
of
cerebral organization that arise fromthem are nihilistic to the impressive body of synaptic physiology. Rather, they inviteconsideration of hierarchies of excitatory organization in which synapticmechanisms represent but one level. How may information be processed in braintissue? Fiber conduction and synaptic activation are clearly essential elements inbrain function. On the other hand, at least three other modes of information han-dling in cerebral neurons deserve equivalent attention. They include dendrodendriticconduction, neuronal-neuroglial interactions across the intercellular space, and thesensing of weak stimuli that modify the immediate environment of the neuron. Thelast class would include sensitivity to weak electric (and perhaps magnetic) fieldsand to minute amounts of chemical substances, which include drugs, hormones, andneurohumors. Susceptibility of brain tissue to drugs, such as D-lySergiC acid di-ethylamide
(LSD),
in body fluid concentrations of
lo-’
lo
are well known andgenerally accepted. Hormone concentrations that predictably modify brain functionare even lower.It is therefore surprising that such scant consideration has
been
given to thepossibility that brain tissue may
be
sensitive to field potentials in the environment ofthe neuron, including the intrinsic fields
of
the electroencephalograph.
Our
reluctance to proceed with studies that might reveal these sensitivities is under-standable, however, as long as
our
viewpoint remains focused on classic synapticpathways as the sole and sufficient mechanisms of neuronal interaction.The neuronal membrane surface
is
characterized by outer coats of fragile, highlyhydrated macromolecular material that appears to be glycoprotein in nature andpolyanionic, with numerous negative fixed charge sites.1L,12hese outer coats
or
“glycocalyces” of cell membranes13 blend with other macromolecular material inthe intercellular space. Although polyanionic in character, it binds strongly to acidicsolutions of phosphotungstic Weak electric currents pass through the ex-tracellular space as a preferred pathway,
so
that only a small portion of any ex-
 
Adey: Nervous System Effects
17
tracellular current penetrates either neuronal
or
neuroglial membranes.le Impe-dance measurements in cerebral tissue therefore primarily reflect conductance inthe extracellular space, and
it
is noteworthy that conductance changes in corticaland subcortical structures accompany a variety of learned responses, which sug-gests that the cell surfaces and intercellular macromolecular material may be onesite of structural change in information storage and its retrie~al.’~-’~This membrane surface glycocalyx greatly extends the effective membranethickness, perhaps to as much as
2000
A,
in what has been described as the “greatermembrane.”20 In this greater membrane model,
a
sensing role has been proposedfor the material of the glycocalyx, with specialized receptor sites for hormones andneurohumoral substances effective in minute amounts and in the binding of trans-mitter substances. The effectiveness
of
substances in minute amounts at themembrane surface may involve conformational changes in macromolecules at thebinding site. Thereafter as a transmembrane effect, molecular “switches,” such asprostaglandins, may trigger a transmembrane response in the presence of calciumions,a1 with activation of powerful metabolic enzymes in energy-releasingmechanisms.2a Clearly, this sequence of events in chemical sensing involves major“membrane amplification” between the initial surface binding and the release ofmetabolic energy.Does
a
comparable mechanism of membrane amplification underlie centralnervous sensing of weak electric fields? It is possible that the broad surface sheet
of
macromolecular material with its numerous fixed negative charges may function
as
a
sensor of these fields. These negative charges bind cations as
a
“counterion” layerat their surface. Katchalskya3noted that divalent cations are more powerfully boundthan monovalent ones, with the exception of hydrogen ions, and that calcium ismuch more powerfully bound to macromolecular polyelectrolytes than other diva-lent cations, including magnesium. Our data support the possibility that the bindingof calcium to membrane surface polyanions may be classed as a “cooperative”process, with a weak trigger at one point initiating macromolecular conformationalchanges over considerable distances and perhaps triggering metabolic energy releasethrough transmembrane signals. Schwartz and ass~ciates~-~~ave proposed acooperative mode of this type for linear biopolymers, such as poly-L-glutamic acid,with development of cooperativity by assuming that immediately neighboring seg-ments of the polymer are more likely to be found in like charge states than unlikeones. If this occurs on the membrane surface, decremental conduction of slowwaves in neuronal dendrites could be based on a “virtual” wave of altered calciumbinding, traveling longitudinally on dendritic structures, which would leave modifiedstates of binding sites on the macromolecular sheet behind the advancing wave, butwould involve only small displacements of calcium ions to adjacent sites.e Einolf andCarstensenas have pointed out that lateral cationic movement along a porous sur-face having radially oriented fixed charges is associated with dielectric constants
be-
tween
10
and
lo6
at frequencies less than
1
O
kHz.To be useful, such a model must
be
necessary and sufficient to explainphenomena not adequately accounted for by other schemes. Central nervous systeminteractions with weak electric and electromagnetic fields noted in our laboratoryinvite serious consideration of this type of model, because they occur at energy levelsfar below those seen in classic synaptic activation. It is a model with hierarchic orga-nization. Molecular events at the membrane surface would influence the excitabilityof
a
particular neuron. In turn, this neuron would influence others in its domainthrough conduction processes. These processes appear to involve dendrodendriticconduction of the large neuronal “slow waves,” unique to cerebral neurons, from

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