‘Centre State Relation’
Cdr Sangram Dey
National Institute of Financial Management
FEATURES OF FEDERALISM
Conventional definitions of a federationusually lay emphasis on the fact that between thetwo levels of government, there is a division ofpowers such that the central government is givenspecified functions and the states enjoy the residual (non-specified)powers.
Independence and Coordination.
The fundamental processof the formation of a federation is guided by the dual consideration ofself-interests of the units as also mutuality and commonality of largerobjectives, which bind the federating units together. Thus the two wayprocess by guarding self-interest and yet reaching out beyond it for therealisation of common aspiration. This makes for cooperation, mutualaccommodation and compromise. This is the essence of a functioningfederation, which is characterised not so much by independence as bycoordination. A federal state should combine genuine independence ofaction with genuine interdependence. A federal Constitution shouldguarantee to
each of the two levels of government an independence ofeach other sufficient to enable them to engage the continuing supportof significant elements of the political system
2.3 Rationale for Coming Together.
There is an inherent urgeamong the federating units to come together in a federation so that thepolitical and material interests of the units can be better safeguardedthrough the nation that is brought into existence. This process usuallytakes place through two opposite processes.(a)
Federation by disaggregation
, that is, by a process ofdecentralisation, a previously existing state of a unitary characterbreaks up to form a federal state.