Mathematics Review
Compiled and Edited by Romann M. Weber
*
Precalculus
Analytic Geometry
Parabolas
, each defined as the locus of points equidistant from a point
F
(the focus) anda line
D
(the directrix), have equations of the form
2
14
y x p
=±
or
2
14
y p
=±
, wherethe focus is located, respectively, at the point
(0
or (with the sign matchingthat of the equation above) and the directrix has the equation or ,respectively. More generally, a parabola centered at has the equation
,)
p
±
(,0
p
±
)
p y
=
∓
x p
=
∓
(,)
h k
( )
2
14
y k x h p
− =± −
or
( )
2
14
h y p
− =± −
k
.A
circle
of radius
r
centered at
(,
has the equation
)
h k
( ) ( )
222
h y k
− + − =
r
. Itcan be parameterized by cos
r t
=
, .
sin
y r t
=
An
ellipse
is defined as the locus of points such that the sum of the distances fromeach point on the graph to two given fixed points (the foci) is a given constant. Ellipseshave a major and a minor axis and follow the equation
( ) ( )
2222
1
x h y k a b
− −+ =
, where theaxes have length
a
and
b
on either side of the center,
(,
, terminating at the vertices.In the case of
a
, the major axis is parallel to the
x
-axis, and the foci are located at the
)
h k
b
>
*
The overall plan of coverage in this document was based on
Cracking the GRE Math Subject Test, 3
rd
Edition
by Steven A. Leduc, many of whose results have been incorporated here. Certain items from thatreference have been corrected in this document, and new results from other sources have been included.
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