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Mathematics Review

Mathematics Review

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A draft of a mathematics review I wrote based on material drawn from several sources. It is at the level covered by the GRE subject test in mathematics, addressing material ranging from conic sections to multivariable calculus, vector analysis, differential equations, abstract algebra, basic topology, complex analysis, and a little bit on Lebesgue integrals. It's for anyone who wants a compact refresher. I knocked it out fairly quickly, so if there are any errors that have crept in, please let me know.
A draft of a mathematics review I wrote based on material drawn from several sources. It is at the level covered by the GRE subject test in mathematics, addressing material ranging from conic sections to multivariable calculus, vector analysis, differential equations, abstract algebra, basic topology, complex analysis, and a little bit on Lebesgue integrals. It's for anyone who wants a compact refresher. I knocked it out fairly quickly, so if there are any errors that have crept in, please let me know.

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10/14/2011

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Mathematics Review
Compiled and Edited by Romann M. Weber
*
Precalculus
Analytic Geometry
Parabolas
, each defined as the locus of points equidistant from a point
F
(the focus) anda line
D
(the directrix), have equations of the form
2
14
y x p
=±
or
2
14
y p
=±
, wherethe focus is located, respectively, at the point
(0
or (with the sign matchingthat of the equation above) and the directrix has the equation or ,respectively. More generally, a parabola centered at has the equation
,)
p
±
(,0
p
±
)
p y
=
x p
=
(,)
h
( )
2
14
y k x h p
=±
or
( )
2
14
h y p
=±
.A
circle
centered at
(,
has the equation
)
h
( ) ( )
222
h y
+ =
. Itcan be parameterized by cos
r
=
, .
sin
y r
=
An
ellipse
is defined as the locus of points such that the sum of the distances fromeach point on the graph to two given fixed points (the foci) is a given constant. Ellipseshave a major and a minor axis and follow the equation
( ) ( )
2222
1
x h y a b
+ =
, where theaxes have length
a
and
b
on either side of the center,
(,
, terminating at the vertices.In the case of
a
, the major axis is parallel to the
x
-axis, and the foci are located at the
)
h
b
>

*
The overall plan of coverage in this document was based on
Cracking the GRE Math Subject Test, 3
rd
Edition
by Steven A. Leduc, many of whose results have been incorporated here. Certain items from thatreference have been corrected in this document, and new results from other sources have been included.
1

points
(
, where
)
,
h c
±
2
c a b
=
2
)
. For the case , the major axis is parallel to the
y
-axis, and the foci are located at the points
(
, where
a b
<
,
h k c
±
2
c b a
=
2
. The
eccentricity
, which measures the “flatness” of the ellipse, is
0
cea
=
1
. An ellipse can be parameterized by cos
x a
=
, .
sin
y b
=
A
hyperbola
is defined as the locus of points in the plane such that the difference between the distances from every point on the hyperbola to two fixed points (the foci) is agiven constant. Depending on its orientation, it has either the equation
( ) ( )
2222
1
x h y a b
=
(opening horizontally), with the foci located at , or
( )
,
h c
±
( ) ( )
2222
1
y k x hb a
=
)
(opening vertically), with the foci located at . In either case,
(
,
h k c
±
2
c a b
= +
2
, and asymptotes are located at
( )
b y k x ha
=±
.
Polynomials
The
rational roots theorem
states that for a polynomial with each, if there are any roots , then they are of the form
0
()
nini
p x a x
=
=
ii
a
s
=
, where andand . Complex and radical roots
always
come in conjugate pairs.
,
s
0
|
s a
|
n
t a
For any polynomial
(
01
()
nnin i nij
)
j
p x a x a x
==
= =
, the sum and product of theroots are given by
11
nn j jn
aa
=
=
and
( )
01
1
nn j jn
aa
=
=
.2

Logarithms
The basic identities of logarithms are the following:

11
loglog
nnb i biii
x
==
=

1122
logloglog
b b
x
b
x x x
=

loglog
ab b
x a x
=

log
b
x
b x
=

( )( )
logloglog
b a
a x
=
b
x
θ θ
Trigonometry
The sine function is odd, meaning that , and the cosine function is even,meaning that . Any trigonometric function is equal to its co-functionoperating on its complement. In other words:
( )
sinsin
θ
=
( )
coscos
θ
=
sincos2
x x
π
=
,
tancot2
x
π
=
,
seccsc2
x x
π
⎛
=
⎞
, and vice versa.
θ

sin
θ

cos
θ

tan
θ
0 0 1 0
6
π

12

12
3

13
3

4
π

12
2

12
2
1
3
π

12
3

12
3
2
π
1 0

23
π

12
3

12
3

34
π

12
2

12
2
-1
56
π

12

12
3

13
3
π
0 -1 03