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Wife

Wife

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Published by Arun Kumar Upadhyay
Vedas have indicated 4 names of wife which are 4 roles. Koran has put limit of 4 wives.
Vedas have indicated 4 names of wife which are 4 roles. Koran has put limit of 4 wives.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Arun Kumar Upadhyay on Aug 23, 2010
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11/13/2012

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Four roles of wifeFour roles of wifeFour roles of wifeFour roles of wife
 -Arun Kumar Upadhyay, Cuttack, (M) 09437034172
Normally, all over the world, there has been pairs of husband-wife. Only the powerfuland rich have kept more than one wife. Among them,
Rāma 
has always beenpraised for having only one wife. In fact, all things were one-He used only one arrow(infallible) and spoke only one word (never backed out)-
 िशरं नािभ संधेरामो िना िभभाषते 
Koran has prescribed limit of 4 wives. Haters of Islam and the Prophet allege hispersonal life as reason of this rule. But that is only exception and the rules for fairness are more difficult in multiple marriages.In Vedic literature also, 4 wives have been indicated-
Mahiṣī, Vāvātā, Parivṛktā,Pālāgalī  
. These words are not used in normal Sanskrit texts anywhere in India. It ispossible that these may be in ancient Arabic due to which these have come inKoran. For wives, we are eager to prescribe 4 number. But in case of 4 husbands,we may accept that same husband may have 4 roles or wife may have 4 stages of relations with husband as indicated in
Atharva-veda 
(14/2/3) which is called
Vivāha sūkta 
. The whole chapter 14 relates to marriage. 4 husbands are-
Soma 
(moon, calmor cool),
Gandharva 
(experts in music),
Agni 
(
Agri 
= leader) and
Manuṣya 
(man)-
 सोमय जाया थमंगधव तेऽपरः पितः । तृ तीयो अिेपिततु रीयतेमनु यजाः ॥ (अथव१४/२/३)
 Some usage of words for 4 wives in Vedic literature are indicated here. All the 4 areused in
Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa 
(here
Brāhmaṇa 
word means explanation, not anycaste), chapters 13/4/1 and 13/5/2.
Sāyaṇa 
has explained these rituals as per 
Kātyāyana śrauta sūtra 
(20/12) which has given meanings of these wives-
Mahiṣī  
=first married wife
, Vāvātā 
 –kept in house (?)
, Parivṛktā 
= kept outside (deserted ?)
,Pālāgalī  
= daughter of messenger (?)
Śrauta sūtra 
is method of rituals.
Śānkhyāyana śrauta sūtra 
also describes it.
 चतो जाया उपलृ ा भवित । मिहषी वावाता परवृ ा पालागली । सवािनिकयोऽलकताः । िमथु नयै व   सव वाय । (शतपथ ाण १३/४/१/८)
 
 सायण भाय-चतो भायाः उप समीपेलृ ाः िथताः भवित । पालागली दू  तदु िहता ।  टपणी 
-
 पयायं यलकताः िनिकयो मिहषी वावाता परवृ ा पालागलीित । (कायायन ौत सू   २०/१२)-  थम परणीता पी 
,
वावाता वलमा 
,
परवृ ा अवलमा 
,
पालागली दू  त पु ी । चत जायाः कमारी पमी 
…..
(शतपथ ाण १३/५/२/१-८)
 Atharva-veda 
(20/128/10-11) is appendix (
khila 
) called
Kuntāpa sūkta 
.
Kuntāpa 
istranslated as gambler-
Tāpa 
= heat or repenting like
paśchāttāpa 
. But it should meanuncertainties in world due to which there cannot be a strict rule. Each rule has some

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