. Biometric smart card ID system is alsoimplemented in various products that are used ineveryday life like keyboards, door looks, safes,USB tokens, POS terminals, ATMs etc . Themost usable biometric smart card is MOC(Match-on-card) type. Some of their producersare: ActivCard, beTRUSTed, SAFLINK,Siemens, Philips/IBM, AFIS readers etc. .In this paper authors want to presents themain characteristics of biometric and smart cardtechnology especially biometric smart card IDsystem technology. As they belief, there are atthe least three reasons why biometric smart cardID system will play (or already play) animportant role in the process of identification andauthentication. The reasons are: (1) world becomes highly networked; (2) the style of livingrequires mobility; (3) new procedures in businesstransactions supported by information andInternet technology, some applications and some products require high level of security inidentification and authentication processes.The paper is divided into six chapters.Following the introduction, methods of biometricidentification are presented in the secondchapter. The main characteristics of biometricsmart card are explained in the third chapter.Fourth chapter points out the requirements andopen issues about biometric identification process and biometric smart card. The usage of biometric smart card is presented in the fifthchapter. The conclusions follow in the sixthchapter.
2. Biometric methods of identification2.1. Background
, an acronym of Greek origin can be literally translates as “the measureof life”. It means that biometrics is based on biological (anthropological) measurablecharacteristics. According to Smart CardAlliance glossary, biometrics is “a measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioraltrait used to recognize the identity, or verify theclaimed identity, of an individual” . Somesources directly link term “biometrics” with term“biometric technology”. In that context,Wayman defines biometric technologies as“automated methods of verifying or recognizingthe identity of a living person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristics .According to IEEE (Institute of Electrical andElectronics Engineers) biometric technology isused for automatic personal recognition based on biological trait or behavioral characteristics .As all definitions points out, identification andauthentication process is based on individuals'unique physiological and behavioralcharacteristics. Physiological biometricscharacteristics are: fingerprint, hand and finger geometry, vessel pattern, iris and retina pattern,face geometry, facial pattern etc., while behavioral characteristics reflect individuals’ behavior regarding performing of certain actions.They are: gait, keystroke, signature, voice etc.In order to use unique physiological and behavioral characteristics of an individual inidentification and authentication process, it wasnecessary to develop certain recognitiontechniques. We can distinguish between physiological techniques that include fingerprintrecognition, retinal and iris recognition,hand/finger geometry, facial feature recognitionand facial thermography recognition, DNAanalysis, ear lobe recognition, wrist/veinrecognition etc., and behavioral techniques likevoice recognition, handwriting (signature)recognition, keystroke dynamic, gait (walking pattern) etc.
2.2. The identification/authentication process
The identification process includes enrollmentand verification (authentication). Both processesare virtually the same for all biometricsidentification methods.Enrollment process covers the followingsteps:
Taking the initial (identifying) sample
Transforming the sample to template
Storing the templateVerification process can be repeated in everyfurther attempt of identification. It covers:
Identification process (taking the new biometric sample)
Verification of the taken and stored template
Approval or rejection for further actions.In taking the first sample, the person isidentified through classical method of identification (identity card) in order to confirmtheir identity.