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Fuente Sin Tranformador

Fuente Sin Tranformador

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Published by Pablo Andrés
Es un documento de microchip, que nos será de utilidad para comprender el funcionamiento de una fuente conmutada. O incluso para poder elaborar este tipo de fuentes.
Es un documento de microchip, que nos será de utilidad para comprender el funcionamiento de una fuente conmutada. O incluso para poder elaborar este tipo de fuentes.

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Published by: Pablo Andrés on Aug 23, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/26/2013

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2004 Microchip Technology Inc.DS00954A-page 1
AN954
INTRODUCTION
There are several ways to convert an AC voltage at awall receptacle into the DC voltage required by amicrocontroller. Traditionally, this has been done with atransformer and rectifier circuit. There are also switch-ing power supply solutions, however, in applicationsthat involve providing a DC voltage to only themicrocontroller and a few other low-current devices,transformer-based or switcher-based power suppliesmay not be cost effective. The reason is that thetransformers in transformer-based solutions, and theinductor/MOSFET/controller in switch-based solutions,are expensive and take up a considerable amount ofspace. This is especially true in the appliance market,where the cost and size of the components surroundingthe power supply may be significantly less than the costof the power supply alone.Transformerless power supplies provide a low-costalternative to transformer-based and switcher-basedpower supplies. The two basic types of transformerlesspower supplies are resistive and capacitive. Thisapplication note will discuss both with a focus on thefollowing:1.A circuit analysis of the supply.2.The advantages and disadvantages of eachpower supply.3.Additional considerations including safetyrequirements and trade-offs associated withhalf-bridge versus full-bridge rectification.
Author:Reston CondiMicrochip Technology Inc.
Warning: 
An electrocution hazard exists during experimentation with transformerless circuits that interface to wall power. There is no transformer for power-line isolation in the following circuits, so the user must be very careful and assess the risks from line-transients in the user’s application. An isolation transformer should be used when probing the following circuits.
Transformerless Power Supplies: Resistive and Capacitive
 
AN954
DS00954A-page 2
2004 Microchip Technology Inc.
CAPACITIVE TRANSFORMERLESSPOWER SUPPLY
A capacitive transformerless power supply is shown inFigure1. The voltage at the load will remain constantso long as current out (I
OUT
) is less than or equal tocurrent in (I
IN
). I
IN
is limited by R1 and the reactance ofC1.
FIGURE 1:CAPACITIVE POWER SUPPLY
I
IN
is given by:
EQUATION 1:EQUATION 2:EQUATION 3:
SubstitutingEquation2andEquation3intoEquation1 results in:
EQUATION 4:
Note:
R1 limits inrush current. The value of R1 ischosen so that it does not dissipate toomuch power, yet is large enough to limitinrush current.LNR1D2V
OUT
D15.1VC2470 1/2WI
OUT
I
IN
470
µ
FC1.47
µ
250V
 I 
 IN 
=
 HFRMS
≥ 
OUT 
 X 
C1
+ R1
Where V
HFRMS
is the RMS voltage of a half-waveAC sine wave and
X
C1
is the reactance of C1.
 HFRMS
= =
PEAK 
– V 
 Z 
√  
2V 
 RMS
– V 
 Z 
22
Where V
PEAK
is the peak voltage of the wall power,V
RMS
is the rated voltage of wall power (i.e., UnitedStates: 115VAC, Europe: 220VAC) and V
Z
is thevoltage drop across D1.
 X 
C1
=12
π 
 fC1
Where f is the frequency (i.e., United States: 60Hz,some countries: 50Hz).
 I 
 IN 
=
√  
2V 
 RMS
– V 
 Z 
21
2
π 
 fC1+ R1
  
   
 
2004 Microchip Technology Inc.DS00954A-page 3
AN954
The minimum value of I
IN
should be calculated for theapplication, while the maximum value of I
IN
should becalculated for the power requirements of individualcomponents.
EXAMPLE 1:CALCULATE MINIMUMPOSSIBLE I
IN
EXAMPLE 2:CALCULATE MAXIMUMPOSSIBLE I
IN
V
OUT
is given by:
EQUATION 5:
Assuming a 5.1V zener diode and a 0.6V drop acrossD2, the output voltage will be around 4.5V. This is wellwithin the voltage specification for PIC
 ® 
microcontrollers.
OBSERVATIONS
Figure2shows an oscilloscope plot of V
OUT
at power-up with a 10k
load on the output (between V
OUT
andground.) The 10k
load draws only 0.45mA. As aresult, the rise time of V
OUT
is 280ms (as fast aspossible for given I
IN
and C2), ripple is minimal whenV
OUT
stabilizes at the voltage calculated inEquation5,approximately 4.5V.
FIGURE 2:V
OUT
AT START-UP WITH 10K
LOAD
Assume minimum values of all components except V
Z
and R1. Assume maximum value of V
Z
and R1.V
RMS
=110VACV
Z
=5.1Vf =59.5 HzC=C1 = 0.47
µ
F x 0.8 = 0.38
µ
F(assuming ±20% capacitor)R =R1 = 470 x 1.1 = 517 (assuming ±10%resistor)I
INMIN
=10.4mAAssume maximum values of all components exceptV
Z
and R1. Assume minimum value of V
Z
and R1.V
RMS
=120VACV
Z
=5Vf=60.1HzC =C1 = 0.47
µ
F x 1.20 = 0.56
µ
F(assuming ±20% capacitor)R =R1 = 470 x 0.9 = 423 (assuming ±10%resistor)I
INMAX
=16.0mA
OUT 
= V 
 Z 
– V 
 D
Where V
D
is the forward voltage drop across D2.

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