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Differential geometry notes 3

Differential geometry notes 3

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Math 4441 Aug 28, 2007
1
Differential GeometryFall 2007, Georgia Tech
Lecture Notes 1
1 Curves
1.1 Definition and Examples
A (parametrized)
curve
(in Euclidean space) is a mapping
α
:
R
n
, where
is an interval in the real line. We also use the notation
t
α
α
(
t
)
R
n
,
which emphasizes that
α
sends each element of the interval
to a certainpoint in
R
n
. We say that
α
is (of the class of)
k
provided that it is
k
timescontinuously differentiable. We shall always assume that
α
is continuous(
0
), and whenever we need to differentiate it we will assume that
α
isdifferentiable up to however many orders that we may need.Some standard examples of curves are a
line
which passes through a point
 p
R
n
, is parallel to the vector
v
R
n
, and has constant speed
v
[0
,
2
π
]
t
α
p
+
tv
R
n
;a
circle
of radius
R
in the plane, which is oriented counterclockwise,[0
,
2
π
]
t
α
r
cos(
t
)
,r
sin(
t
)
R
2
;and the right handed
helix 
(or corkscrew) given by
R
t
α
r
cos(
t
)
,r
sin(
t
)
,t
R
3
.
Other famous examples include the
figure-eight 
curve[0
,
2
π
]
t
α
sin(
t
)
,
sin(2
t
)
R
2
,
1
Last revised: August 28, 2007
1
 
the
parabola 
R
t
α
t,t
2
)
R
2
,
and the
cubic curve
R
t
α
t,t
2
,t
3
)
R
3
.
Exercise 1.
Sketch the cubic curve (
Hint:
First draw each of the projectionsinto the
xy
,
yz
, and
zx
planes).
Exercise 2.
Find a formula for the curve which is traced by the motion of afixed point on a wheel of radius
r
rolling with constant speed on a flat surface(
Hint:
Add the formula for a circle to the formula for a line generated bythe motion of the center of the wheel. You only need to make sure that thespeed of the line correctly matches the speed of the circle).
Exercise 3.
Let
α
:
R
n
, and
β 
:
R
n
be a pair of differentiable
curves
. Show that
α
(
t
)
,β 
(
t
)
=
α
(
t
)
,β 
(
t
)
+
α
(
t
)
,β 
(
t
)
and
α
(
t
)
=
α
(
t
)
,α
(
t
)
α
(
t
)
.
(
Hint:
The first identity follows immediately from the definition of the inner-product, together with the ordinary product rule for derivatives. The secondidentity follows from the first once we recall that
 · 
:=
·
,
·
1
/
2
).
Exercise 4.
Show that if 
α
has unit speed, i.e.,
α
(
t
)
= 1, then its velocityand acceleration are orthogonal, i.e.,
α
(
t
)
,α

(
t
)
= 0.
Exercise 5.
Show that if the position vector and velocity of a planar curve
α
:
R
2
are always perpendicular, i.e.,
α
(
t
)
,α
(
t
)
= 0, for all
t
, then
α
(
) lies on a circle centered at the origin of 
R
2
.
Exercise 6.
Use the fundamental theorem of Calculus for real valued func-tions to show:
α
(
b
)
α
(
a
) =
 
ba
α
(
t
)
dt.
2
 
Exercise 7.
Prove that
α
(
b
)
α
(
a
)
 
ba
α
(
t
)
dt.
(
Hint:
Use the fundamental theorem of calculus and the Cauchy-Schwartsinequality to show that for any unit vector
u
R
n
,
α
(
b
)
α
(
a
)
,u
=
 
ba
α
(
t
)
,u
dt
 
ba
α
(
t
)
dt.
Then set
u
:= (
α
(
b
)
α
(
a
))
/
α
(
b
)
α
(
a
)
.The previous exercise immediately yields:
Theorem 8
(
Mean Value Theorem for curves
)
.
If 
α
:
R
n
be
1
curve, then for every 
t
,
s
,
α
(
t
)
α
(
s
)
sup
[
t,s
]
α
|
t
s
|
.
1.2 Reparametrization
We say that
β 
:
R
n
is a
reparametrization 
of 
α
:
R
n
provided thatthere exists a smooth bijection
θ
:
such that
α
(
t
) =
β 
θ
(
t
)
.
In otherwords, the following diagram commutes:For instance
β 
(
t
) = (cot(2
t
)
,
sin(2
t
)), 0
t
π
, is a reparametrization
α
(
t
) = (sin(
t
)
,
cos(
t
)), 0
t
2
π
, with
θ
: [0
,
2
π
]
[0
,π
] given by
θ
(
t
) =
t/
2.The
geometric quantities
associated to a curve do not change underreparametrization. These include length and curvature as we define below.3

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