Advanced Synchronous Reference Frame Controller for three-Phase UPSPowering Unbalanced and Nonlinear Loads
Nam-Joo Park, Dong-Seok HyunHanyang UniversityDepartment of Electrical Engineering17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul KOREAEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Kyung-Hwan KimEhwa Technologies and Information CompanyDepartment of Power System272-20 Taejun, Kwangjoo, KyungKi-Do, KOREAEmail: email@example.com
Abstract— This paper describes a high performance voltagecontroller for 3-phase 4 wire UPS (Uninterruptible PowerSupply) system, and proposes a new scheme of synchronousreference frame controller in order to compensate for thevoltage distortions due to unbalanced and nonlinear loads.Proposed scheme in this paper is able to completely eliminate thenegative sequence voltage distortion due to unbalanced loadsand also reduce the harmonic voltage distortion due tonon-linear loads, even if the bandwidth of voltage control loop isa very narrow. Therefore, the proposed scheme is especiallyappropriate for a fully digital controlled UPS or a high powerUPS with limited voltage control bandwidth. In order tocompensate for the effects of unbalanced loads, the synchronousreference frame controller with the positive and negativesequence computation block is proposed, and the synchronousframe controller with a bandpass filter is proposed tocompensate for the selected harmonic frequency of outputvoltage. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has beeninvestigated and verified through computer simulations andexperiments by a 30kVA UPS.
INTRODUCTIONWith the ever-increasing use of electronic equipments inthe market, the majority of loads fed by UPS (UninterruptiblePower Supply) are nonlinear and/or unbalanced loads. Theseunbalanced and nonlinear loads create the voltage distortionswhich lead to load failures as well as a reduction of inverter MTBF on the output of UPS . Therefore, the limitation of the voltage distortions has become the main aim in designinga high quality UPS. Since the origin of these voltagedistortions is due to the distorted voltage drop on the outputimpedance of inverter output filter by the distorted loadcurrents, several approaches directly proposed a strategicallyselected output filter with a low-impedance , .Different approaches have been proposed in order toreduce the voltage distortion in UPS or a 3-phae inverter.High performance feedback control scheme using a dead-beatcontrol and an observer has been proposed in . Althoughthis technique is able to ensure a fast and robust control of output voltage, the scheme requires the current controller inthe minor loop with a fast sampling frequency and theknowledge of the filter components.In , repetitive learning controller is designed toeliminate the periodic tracking error by nonlinear loaddisturbances. Although this scheme is able to compensate the parameter uncertainties of the output filter, it requires still theinformation of the filter components. Also a heightenedsampling frequency is needed to reduce the residue trackingerrors. In UPS control system, the phase of the referencevoltages are changed continuously for synchronization with avoltage source of the utility or the other UPS in paralleloperation. This situation will produce a bad effect on the performance of repetitive-based controller.As another approach, the selected harmonic compensationmethod using discrete Fourier transformation (DFT)  andthe synchronous reference frame controller (SRFC)  have been proposed. However, the DFT method requires too muchcomputation, and the method by SRFC requires theknowledge of the leading angle which compensates for thesystem delay.Unfortunately, the aforementioned approaches do notcompensate the voltage distortion due to unbalanced loads.Also the majority of them require a wide bandwidth of thevoltage control loop, likewise a fast sampling frequency. In, synchronous reference frame controller has been proposed in order to compensate the negative sequencecomponent voltage distortion due to unbalanced loads.However, with respect that PI controllers in the scheme do notoperate in pure DC domain, the heightened voltage control bandwidth with over hundreds of Hz is needed for the zerosteady state error, and its performance depend on the delay inmeasuring the output voltages.One important point to be duly considered in designing avoltage controller for UPS is the voltage control bandwidth.Considering a full digitalized UPS in the market,microprocessor or DSP (Digital Signal Processor) actually must do so many things to increase the value of the product,such as the serial communication for networking, theman-machine interface, the displaying of currents, voltagesand some of parameters, the tracing some waveforms, and themanaging of fault history, etc. They limit the switchingfrequency; likewise limit the voltage control bandwidth to lessthan several hundred rad/sec. Generally, the commercialized3-phase 4-wire UPS have about from 5 KHz to 10 KHz of switching or sampling frequency, and it has an output LCfilter whose natural frequency is about from 300Hz to 500Hz.Under these conditions, if the integral controller is used tomeet about 1% of steady state errors, the bandwidth of voltagecontrol loop will be limited to more and less 100Hz. Thissituation is especially true for a high power UPS because of itslimited switching frequency.This paper proposes advanced synchronous referenceframe controller (SRFC) based on  and . The proposed
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