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rotation (rotasi)

# rotation (rotasi)

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02/01/2013

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1
Quiz 5 (Ch. 7)
Relations between angular and
linear quantities:
Centripetal force and centripetal
acceleration:
αωθ
r
a
r
r
s
tt
==
=
v
2
2
v
ω
r
r
a
ma
Fc
c
c
=
==
2
1
1
r
m
m
G
Fg=
Gravitational force
2
Chapter 8

Rotational Equilibrium
and
Rotational Dynamics

3
Linear Motion
Forces cause accelerations
Point of the force application does not
matter - gives the sameli ne ar
acceleration to the object
Object moves as if all of its mass is
concentrated at a single point
Α
Β
F
r
4
Rotational Motion
Forces cause accelerations
Point of the force application does
matter - gives differentang u l ar
acceleration to the object
Object has dimensions, need to find the
position of the point where mass is
concentrated
Α
Β
F
r
5
Force vs. Torque
Forces cause accelerations
Torques cause angular
accelerations
Torque and force are related
Torque determines the
“effectiveness” of the force in
producing angular acceleration
6
Example: Hinged Door
The door is free to rotate about an axis
through O
There are three factors that determine the
effectiveness of the force in opening the door:
Themagnit ude of the force
Thepo sit io n of the application of the force
Theangle at which the force is applied
7
Effect of Position and Angle
When the force is parallel to the position
vector, no rotation occurs
When the force is at some angle, the
perpendicularcomponent causes the
rotation
8
Definition of Torque
Torque,τ, is the tendency of a force
to rotate an object about some axis :
τ =r F sin θ
F is the force
r is the length of the position vector
θis the angle between the force and the
position vector
SI unit is N.m
9
Lever Arm
The lever arm, d, is the perpendicular distance
from the axis of rotation to a line drawn along
the direction of the force
d = r sinθ
10
Example: Problem #1
τ = 40.0Nm
r = 30.0 cm
Fmin -?
F
r
r
r
θ
11
Example: Problem #5

m = 5 kg l= 2.0 m θ= 5.0ο

τ-?
g
F
r
l
O
Lever arm
l sinθ
12
Torque and Work
Torque is a vector, defined as a
“cross” product
zero when force is parallel to position vector
Work is scalar, defined as a “dot”
product
zero when force is perpendicular to displacement
θ
τ
sin
r
F
r
F
=
×
=
r
r
r
θ
cos
r
F
r
F
W
=
=
r
r
13
Direction of Torque
Torque is a vector quantity
The direction is perpendicular to the
plane determined by the position
vector and the force
If the turning tendency of the force is
counterclockwise, the torque will be
positive
If the turning tendency is clockwise,
the torque will be negative
14
Right Hand Rule
Point the fingers

in the direction of
the position
vector

Curl the fingers
toward the force
vector
The thumb points
in the direction of
the torque
15
Net Torque
The net torque is the sum of all the
torques produced by all the forces
If the net torque is zero, the object’s
rate of rotation doesn’t change
Remember to account for the direction
of the tendency for rotation
Counterclockwise torques are positive
Clockwise torques are negative
16
Equilibrium
First Condition of Equilibrium
The net external force must be zero
This is a necessary, but not sufficient,
condition to ensure that an object is in
complete mechanical equilibrium
This is a statement of translational
equilibrium
0
0
0
x
y
or
and
Σ =
Σ
=
Σ
=
F
F
F
r
r
r
17
Torque and Equilibrium
To ensure mechanical equilibrium,
you need to ensure rotational
equilibrium as well as translational
The Second Condition of
Equilibrium states
The net external torque must be zero
0
τ
Σ =
r
18
Equilibrium Example
The woman, mass
m, sits on the left
end of the see-saw
The man, mass M,
sits where the see-
saw will be balanced
Apply the Second

Condition of
Equilibrium and
solve for the
unknown distance, x