Simulation of catalytic processes
J.L. Valverde, C. Saez. University of Castilla-La Mancha. Spain.E-mail:JoseLuis.Valverde@uclm.es 1. INTRODUCTIONComputing packages that model the process units of chemical plants are introduced andutilized to model highly integrated flowsheets commonly designed to achieve moreprofitable operations. These packages are referred to as process simulators, most of which are used to simulate potential processes in the steady state- that is, to determinethe unknown temperatures, pressures, and flow rates at steady state. Process simulatorsare also used by the design teams to calculate heat duties, power requirements, phaseand chemical equilibria, and the performance of multistaged towers and reactors, amongother calculations.Process flowsheets are the language of chemical processes. Analysis, or simulation, isthe tool chemical engineers use to interpret process flowsheets to locate malfunctions,and to predict the performance of processes. The heart of analysis is the mathematicalmodel, a collection of equations that relate the process variables, such as streamtemperatures, pressure, flow rate, and composition, to surface area, valve settings and soon.HYSYS is an interactive, object-oriented program, which differs from many of thealternative commercial simulators (ASPEN PLUS, PRO/II and CHEMCAD) in twomain respects. First, it has the facility for interactively interpreting commands, as theyare entered one at a time, whereas most of the other flowsheet simulators require that aRun button be pressed after new entries are completed. Second, although HYSYS, likemany other simulators, uses subroutines or procedures to model the process units, it hasthe unique feature that information propagates in both forward and reverse directions.This bidirectionality often makes iterative calculations unnecessary. These two featuresmake the program fast responding and relatively easy to use.2. BASICS OF THE STEADY STATE SIMULATION USING HYSYS
We are going to consider a simple example as the separation of ammonia and water. Inthis example, a mixture of ammonia and water in the vapour phase, saturated at 250 psiaan containing 80 wt% ammonia, is passed through a condenser at a flow rate of 10000lb/h, where heat is removed at the rate of 5.8 10
Btu/h. Its effluent is expanded to apressure of 100 psia and fed into a flash vessel, as shown in Figure 1. Neglecting theheat loss from the equipment to the surrounding and the pressure drop in the condenser,it is desired to determine the composition of the liquid stream leaving the separator.