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Official NASA Communication 95-190

Official NASA Communication 95-190

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Published by: NASAdocuments on Oct 06, 2007
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Don SavageHeadquarters, Washington, DC November 2, 1995(Phone: 202/358-1547)Fred BrownGoddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD(Phone: 301/286-5566)Ray VillardSpace Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD(Phone: 410/338-4514)RELEASE: 95-190EMBRYONIC STARS EMERGE FROM INTERSTELLAR "EGGS"Dramatic new pictures from NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope show newborn stars emerging from dense, compactpockets of interstellar gas called evaporating gaseousglobules (EGGs). Hubble found the "EGGs," appropriatelyenough, in the Eagle nebula, a nearby star-forming region7,000 light-years away in the constellation Serpens."For a long time astronomers have speculated about whatprocesses control the sizes of stars -- about why stars arethe sizes that they are," says Jeff Hester of Arizona StateUniversity, Tempe. "Now we seem to be watching at least onesuch process at work right in front of our eyes."Pictures taken by Hester and co-investigators withHubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC2) resolve theEGGs at the tip of finger-like features protruding frommonstrous columns of cold gas in the Eagle nebula (alsocalled M16 -- 16th object in the Messier column). Thecolumns -- dubbed "elephant trunks" -- protrude from thewall of a vast cloud of molecular hydrogen, like stalagmitesrising above the floor of a cavern. Inside the gaseoustowers, which are light-years long, the interstellar gas isdense enough to collapse under its own weight, forming youngstars that continue to grow as they accumulate more and moremass from their surroundings.Hubble gives a clear look at what happens as a torrentof ultraviolet light from nearby young, hot stars heats the
gas along the surface of the pillars, "boiling it away" intointerstellar space -- a process called "photoevaporation."The Hubble pictures show photoevaporating gas as ghostlystreamers flowing away from the columns. But not all of thegas boils off at the same rate. The EGGs, which are denserthan their surroundings, are left behind after the gasaround them is gone.-more--2-"It's a bit like a wind storm in the desert," saidHester. "As the wind blows away the lighter sand, heavierrocks buried in the sand are uncovered. But in M16, insteadof rocks, the ultraviolet light is uncovering the denseregg-like globules of gas that surround stars that wereforming inside the gigantic gas columns."Some EGGs appear as nothing but tiny bumps on thesurface of the columns. Others have been uncovered morecompletely, and now resemble "fingers" of gas protrudingfrom the larger cloud. (The fingers are gas that has beenprotected from photoevaporation by the shadows of the EGGs).Some EGGs have pinched off completely from the larger columnfrom which they emerged, and now look like teardrops inspace.By stringing together these pictures of EGGs caught atdifferent stages of being uncovered, Hester and hiscolleagues from the Wide Field and Planetary CameraInvestigation Definition Team are getting an unprecedentedlook at how stars and their surroundings appear before theyare truly stars."This is the first time that we have actually seen theprocess of forming stars being uncovered byphotoevaporation," Hester emphasized. "In some ways itseems more like archaeology than astronomy. The ultravioletlight from nearby stars does the digging for us, and westudy what is unearthed.""In a few cases we can see the stars in the EGGsdirectly in the WFPC2 images," says Hester. "As soon as thestar in an EGG is exposed, the object looks something likean ice cream cone, with a newly uncovered star playing the
role of the cherry on top."Ultimately, photoevaporation inhibits the furthergrowth of the embryonic stars by dispersing the cloud of gasthey were "feeding" from. "We believe that the stars in M16were continuing to grow as more and more gas fell onto them,right up until the moment that they were cut off from thatsurrounding material by photoevaporation," said Hester.This process is markedly different from the processthat governs the sizes of stars forming in isolation. Someastronomers believe that, left to its own devices, a starwill continue to grow until it nears the point where nuclearfusion begins in its interior. When this happens, the starbegins to blow a strong "wind" that clears away the residualmaterial. Hubble has imaged this process in detail in so-called Herbig-Haro objects.Hester also speculated that photoevaporation mightactually inhibit the formation of planets around such stars."It is not at all clear from the new data that the stars inM16 have reached the point where they have formed the disksthat go on to become solar systems," said Hester, "and if these disks haven't formed yet, they never will."-more--3-Hester plans to use Hubble's high resolution to probeother nearby star-forming regions to look for similarstructures. "Discoveries about the nature of the M16 EGGsmight lead astronomers to rethink some of their ideas aboutthe environments of stars forming in other regions, such asthe Orion Nebula," he predicted.The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space FlightCenter, Greenbelt, MD. The Hubble Space Telescope is aproject of international cooperation between NASA and theEuropean Space Agency.EDITOR'S NOTE: Three images depicting the dramatic pillars

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