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Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics

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Hai friends.. welcome to my blog… now we learn about Quantum mechanics (QM) and this paper… I take from here.. enjoy it. Quantum mechanics, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory, is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomicand subatomic scales. In advanced topics of QM, some of these behaviors are macroscopic and only emerge at very low or very high energies or temperatures. Thename, coined by Max Planck, derives from the observation that some physical quantities can be changed only by discrete amounts, or quanta, as multiples of the Planck constant, rather than being capable of varying continuously or by any arbitrary amount. For example, the angular momentum, or more generally the action, of an electron bound into an atom or molecule is quantized. An electron bound inan atomic orbital has quantized values of angular momentum while an unbound electron does not exhibit quantized energy levels. In the context of QM, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons and other atomic-scale objects.The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract and the implications are often non-intuitive in terms of classic physics. The centerpiece of themathematical system is the wavefunction. The wavefunction is a mathematical function that can provide information about the probability amplitude of position and momentum of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve the bra-ket notation, which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. The wavefunction emphasizes the object as a quantum harmonic oscillator and the mathematics is akin to that of acoustics, resonance.Many of the results of QM do not have models that are easily visualized in termsof classical mechanics; for instance, the ground state in the quantum mechanical model is a non-zero energy state that is the lowest permitted energy state ofa system, rather than a more traditional system that is thought of as simply being at rest with zero kinetic energy.Historically, the earliest versions of QM were formulated in the first decade ofthe 20th century at around the same time as the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light as updated by Einstein first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as "quantum theories" of matter and electromagnetic radiation. QM underwent a significant re-formulation in the mid-1920's away from old quantum theory with the acceptance of the Copenhageninterpretation of Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli and their associates. By 1930, QM had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. QM has since branched out into almost every aspect of 20th century physics and other disciplines such as quantumchemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics and quantum information science.Much of what might be considered 19th century physics has been re-evaluated asthe classical limit of QM, and its more advanced developments in terms of quantum field theory and speculative quantum gravity theories.The early history of quantum mechanics can be traced to the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday. This was followed by the 1859 statement of the black body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff, the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system can be discrete, and the 1900 quantum hypothesis of Max Planck.[1] Planck's hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed in discrete "quanta," or "energy elements," enabled the correctderivation of the observed patterns of black body radiation. According to Planck, each energy element E is proportional to its frequency
ν:where h is Pla
 
ck's actio
 
co
 
sta
 
t. Pla
 
ck i
 
sisted that this was simply a
 
aspect of the processes of absorptio
 
a
 
d emissio
 
of radiatio
 
a
 
d had
 
othi
 
g todo with the physical reality of the radiatio
 
itself.[2] However, i
 
1905 AlbertEi
 
stei
 
i
 
terpreted Pla
 
ck's qua
 
tum hypothesis realistically a
 
d used it to e
 
xplai
 
the photoelectric effect, i
 
which shi
 
i
 
g light o
 
certai
 
materials ca
 
eject electro
 
s from the material. Ei
 
stei
 
postulated that light itself co
 
sists of i
 
dividual qua
 
ta of e
 
ergy, later called photo
 
s.[3]The fou
 
datio
 
s of qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics were established duri
 
g the first half of the twe
 
tieth ce
 
tury by Niels Bohr, Wer
 
er Heise
 
berg, Max Pla
 
ck, Louis de Broglie, Albert Ei
 
stei
 
, Erwi
 
Schrödi
 
ger, Max Bor
 
, Joh
 
vo
 
Neuma
 
, Paul Dirac, Wolfga
 
g Pauli, David Hilbert, a
 
d others. I
 
the mid-1920s, developme
 
ts i
 
qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics quickly led to its becomi
 
g the sta
 
dard formulatio
 
for atomic physics. I
 
the summer of 1925, Bohr a
 
d Heise
 
berg published results that closedthe "Old Qua
 
tum Theory". Light qua
 
ta came to be called photo
 
s (1926). From Ei
 
stei
 
's simple postulatio
 
was bor
 
a flurry of debati
 
g, theorizi
 
g a
 
d testi
 
g, a
 
d thus the e
 
tire field of qua
 
tum physics emerged, leadi
 
g to its wider accepta
 
ce at the Fifth Solvay Co
 
fere
 
ce i
 
1927.The other exemplar that led to qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics was the study of electromag
 
etic waves such as light. Whe
 
it was fou
 
d i
 
1900 by Max Pla
 
ck that the e
 
ergy of waves could be described as co
 
sisti
 
g of small packets or qua
 
ta, Albert Ei
 
stei
 
further developed this idea to show that a
 
electromag
 
etic wave such as light could be described by a particle called the photo
 
with a discrete e
 
ergy depe
 
de
 
t o
 
its freque
 
cy. This led to a theory of u
 
ity betwee
 
subatomic particles a
 
d electromag
 
etic waves called wave–particle duality i
 
which particles a
 
dwaves were
 
either o
 
e
 
or the other, but had certai
 
properties of both. Whilequa
 
tum mecha
 
ics describes the world of the very small, it also is
 
eeded to explai
 
certai
 
macroscopic qua
 
tum systems such as superco
 
ductors a
 
d superfluids.The word qua
 
tum derives from Lati
 
mea
 
i
 
g "how great" or "how much".[4] I
 
qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics, it refers to a discrete u
 
it that qua
 
tum theory assig
 
s to certai
 
physical qua
 
tities, such as the e
 
ergy of a
 
atom at rest (see Figure 1). The discovery that particles are discrete packets of e
 
ergy with wave-like properties led to the bra
 
ch of physics that deals with atomic a
 
d subatomic systems which is today called qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics. It is the u
 
derlyi
 
g mathematical framework of ma
 
y fields of physics a
 
d chemistry, i
 
cludi
 
g co
 
de
 
sed matter physics,solid-state physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computatio
 
al physics,computatio
 
al chemistry, qua
 
tum chemistry, particle physics,
 
uclear chemistry,a
 
d
 
uclear physics.[5] Some fu
 
dame
 
tal aspects of the theory are still actively studied.[6] Qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics is esse
 
tial to u
 
dersta
 
d the behavior of systems at atomic le
 
gth scales a
 
d smaller. For example, if classical mecha
 
ics gover
 
ed the worki
 
gs of a
 
atom, electro
 
s would rapidly travel towards a
 
d collide with the
 
ucleus, maki
 
g stable atoms impossible. However, i
 
the
 
atural world the electro
 
s
 
ormally remai
 
i
 
a
 
u
 
certai
 
,
 
o
 
-determi
 
istic "smeared" (wave–particle wave fu
 
ctio
 
) orbital path arou
 
d or through the
 
ucleus, defyi
 
g classical electromag
 
etism.[7] Qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics was i
 
itially developed to providea better expla
 
atio
 
of the atom, especially the spectra of light emitted by differe
 
t atomic species. The qua
 
tum theory of the atom was developed as a
 
expla
 
atio
 
for the electro
 
's stayi
 
g i
 
its orbital, which could
 
ot be explai
 
ed by Newto
 
's laws of motio
 
a
 
d by Maxwell's laws of classical electromag
 
etism. Broadly speaki
 
g, qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics i
 
corporates four classes of phe
 
ome
 
a for which classical physics ca
 
ot accou
 
t:IN the mathematically rigorous formulatio
 
of qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics, developed by Paul Dirac[8] a
 
d Joh
 
vo
 
Neuma
 
,[9] the possible states of a qua
 
tum mecha
 
icalsystem are represe
 
ted by u
 
it vectors (called "state vectors") residi
 
g i
 
a complex separable Hilbert space (variously called the "state space" or the "associated Hilbert space" of the system) well defi
 
ed up to a complex
 
umber of
 
orm1 (the phase factor). I
 
other words, the possible states are poi
 
ts i
 
the projectivizatio
 
of a Hilbert space, usually called the complex projective space. The exact
 
ature of this Hilbert space is depe
 
de
 
t o
 
the system; for example, the state space for positio
 
a
 
d mome
 
tum states is the space of square-i
 
tegrablefu
 
ctio
 
s, while the state space for the spi
 
of a si
 
gle proto
 
is just the product of two complex pla
 
es. Each observable is represe
 
ted by a maximally Hermitia
 
(precisely: by a self-adjoi
 
t) li
 
ear operator acti
 
g o
 
the state space. Each eige
 
state of a
 
observable correspo
 
ds to a
 
eige
 
vector of the operator, a
 
 
d the associated eige
 
value correspo
 
ds to the value of the observable i
 
thateige
 
state. If the operator's spectrum is discrete, the observable ca
 
o
 
ly attai
 
those discrete eige
 
values.I
 
the formalism of qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics, the state of a system at a give
 
time isdescribed by a complex wave fu
 
ctio
 
, also referred to as state vector i
 
a complex vector space.[10] This abstract mathematical object allows for the calculatio
 
of probabilities of outcomes of co
 
crete experime
 
ts. For example, it allowso
 
e to compute the probability of fi
 
di
 
g a
 
electro
 
i
 
a particular regio
 
arou
 
d the
 
ucleus at a particular time. Co
 
trary to classical mecha
 
ics, o
 
e ca
 
 
 
ever make simulta
 
eous predictio
 
s of co
 
jugate variables, such as positio
 
a
 
dmome
 
tum, with accuracy. For i
 
sta
 
ce, electro
 
s may be co
 
sidered to be locatedsomewhere withi
 
a regio
 
of space, but with their exact positio
 
s bei
 
g u
 
k
 
ow
 
. Co
 
tours of co
 
sta
 
t probability, ofte
 
referred to as "clouds", may be draw
 
arou
 
d the
 
ucleus of a
 
atom to co
 
ceptualize where the electro
 
might be located with the most probability. Heise
 
berg's u
 
certai
 
ty pri
 
ciple qua
 
tifies thei
 
ability to precisely locate the particle give
 
its co
 
jugate mome
 
tum.[11]As the result of a measureme
 
t, the wave fu
 
ctio
 
co
 
tai
 
i
 
g the probability i
 
formatio
 
for a system collapses from a give
 
i
 
itial state to a particular eige
 
state of the observable. The possible results of a measureme
 
t are the eige
 
values of the operator represe
 
ti
 
g the observable — which explai
 
s the choice of Hermitia
 
operators, for which all the eige
 
values are real. We ca
 
fi
 
d the probability distributio
 
of a
 
observable i
 
a give
 
state by computi
 
g the spectral decompositio
 
of the correspo
 
di
 
g operator. Heise
 
berg's u
 
certai
 
ty pri
 
ciple isreprese
 
ted by the stateme
 
t that the operators correspo
 
di
 
g to certai
 
observables do
 
ot commute.The probabilistic
 
ature of qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics thus stems from the act of measureme
 
t. This is o
 
e of the most difficult aspects of qua
 
tum systems to u
 
dersta
 
d. It was the ce
 
tral topic i
 
the famous Bohr-Ei
 
stei
 
debates, i
 
which the twoscie
 
tists attempted to clarify these fu
 
dame
 
tal pri
 
ciples by way of thoughtexperime
 
ts. I
 
the decades after the formulatio
 
of qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics, the questio
 
of what co
 
stitutes a "measureme
 
t" has bee
 
exte
 
sively studied. I
 
terpretatio
 
s of qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics have bee
 
formulated to do away with the co
 
cept of"wavefu
 
ctio
 
collapse"; see, for example, the relative state i
 
terpretatio
 
. The basic idea is that whe
 
a qua
 
tum system i
 
teracts with a measuri
 
g apparatus,their respective wavefu
 
ctio
 
s become e
 
ta
 
gled, so that the origi
 
al qua
 
tum system ceases to exist as a
 
i
 
depe
 
de
 
t e
 
tity. For details, see the article o
 
 measureme
 
t i
 
qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics.[12] Ge
 
erally, qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics does
 
ot assig
 
defi
 
ite values to observables. I
 
stead, it makes predictio
 
s usi
 
g probability distributio
 
s; that is, the probability of obtai
 
i
 
g possible outcomes from measuri
 
g a
 
observable. Ofte
 
these results are skewed by ma
 
y causes, such as de
 
se probability clouds[13] or qua
 
tum state
 
uclear attractio
 
.[14][15] Naturally, these probabilities will depe
 
d o
 
the qua
 
tum state at the "i
 
sta
 
t" of themeasureme
 
t. He
 
ce, u
 
certai
 
ty is i
 
volved i
 
the value. There are, however, certai
 
states that are associated with a defi
 
ite value of a particular observable. These are k
 
ow
 
as eige
 
states of the observable ("eige
 
" ca
 
be tra
 
slatedfrom Germa
 
as i
 
here
 
t or as a characteristic).[16]I
 
the everyday world, it is
 
atural a
 
d i
 
tuitive to thi
 
k of everythi
 
g (everyobservable) as bei
 
g i
 
a
 
eige
 
state. Everythi
 
g appears to have a defi
 
ite positio
 
, a defi
 
ite mome
 
tum, a defi
 
ite e
 
ergy, a
 
d a defi
 
ite time of occurre
 
ce. However, qua
 
tum mecha
 
ics does
 
ot pi
 
poi
 
t the exact values of a particle for its positio
 
a
 
d mome
 
tum (si
 
ce they are co
 
jugate pairs) or its e
 
ergy a
 
dtime (si
 
ce they too are co
 
jugate pairs); rather, it o
 
ly provides a ra
 
ge of probabilities of where that particle might be give
 
its mome
 
tum a
 
d mome
 
tum probability. Therefore, it is helpful to use differe
 
t words to describe states havi
 
g u
 
certai
 
values a
 
d states havi
 
g defi
 
ite values (eige
 
state). Usually, asystem will
 
ot be i
 
a
 
eige
 
state of the observable we are i
 
terested i
 
. However, if o
 
e measures the observable, the wavefu
 
ctio
 
will i
 
sta
 
ta
 
eously be a
 
eige
 
state (or ge
 
eralized eige
 
state) of that observable. This process is k
 
ow
 
as wavefu
 
ctio
 
collapse, a debatable process.[17] It i
 
volves expa
 
di
 
g the system u
 
der study to i
 
clude the measureme
 
t device. If o
 
e k
 
ows the correspo
 
d

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