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Quantum MechanicsRatings: (0)|Views: 15|Likes: 4

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/36381444/Quantum-Mechanics

10/01/2010

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Hai friends.. welcome to my blog… now we learn about Quantum mechanics (QM) and this paper… I take from here.. enjoy it. Quantum mechanics, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory, is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomicand subatomic scales. In advanced topics of QM, some of these behaviors are macroscopic and only emerge at very low or very high energies or temperatures. Thename, coined by Max Planck, derives from the observation that some physical quantities can be changed only by discrete amounts, or quanta, as multiples of the Planck constant, rather than being capable of varying continuously or by any arbitrary amount. For example, the angular momentum, or more generally the action, of an electron bound into an atom or molecule is quantized. An electron bound inan atomic orbital has quantized values of angular momentum while an unbound electron does not exhibit quantized energy levels. In the context of QM, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons and other atomic-scale objects.The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract and the implications are often non-intuitive in terms of classic physics. The centerpiece of themathematical system is the wavefunction. The wavefunction is a mathematical function that can provide information about the probability amplitude of position and momentum of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve the bra-ket notation, which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. The wavefunction emphasizes the object as a quantum harmonic oscillator and the mathematics is akin to that of acoustics, resonance.Many of the results of QM do not have models that are easily visualized in termsof classical mechanics; for instance, the ground state in the quantum mechanical model is a non-zero energy state that is the lowest permitted energy state ofa system, rather than a more traditional system that is thought of as simply being at rest with zero kinetic energy.Historically, the earliest versions of QM were formulated in the first decade ofthe 20th century at around the same time as the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light as updated by Einstein first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as "quantum theories" of matter and electromagnetic radiation. QM underwent a significant re-formulation in the mid-1920's away from old quantum theory with the acceptance of the Copenhageninterpretation of Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli and their associates. By 1930, QM had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. QM has since branched out into almost every aspect of 20th century physics and other disciplines such as quantumchemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics and quantum information science.Much of what might be considered 19th century physics has been re-evaluated asthe classical limit of QM, and its more advanced developments in terms of quantum field theory and speculative quantum gravity theories.The early history of quantum mechanics can be traced to the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday. This was followed by the 1859 statement of the black body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff, the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system can be discrete, and the 1900 quantum hypothesis of Max Planck.[1] Planck's hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed in discrete "quanta," or "energy elements," enabled the correctderivation of the observed patterns of black body radiation. According to Planck, each energy element E is proportional to its frequency

ν:where h is Pla

ck's actio

co

sta

t. Pla

ck i

sisted that this was simply a

aspect of the processes of absorptio

a

d emissio

of radiatio

a

d had

othi

g todo with the physical reality of the radiatio

itself.[2] However, i

1905 AlbertEi

stei

i

terpreted Pla

ck's qua

tum hypothesis realistically a

d used it to e

xplai

the photoelectric effect, i

which shi

i

g light o

certai

materials ca

eject electro

s from the material. Ei

stei

postulated that light itself co

sists of i

dividual qua

ta of e

ergy, later called photo

s.[3]The fou

datio

s of qua

tum mecha

ics were established duri

g the first half of the twe

tieth ce

tury by Niels Bohr, Wer

er Heise

berg, Max Pla

ck, Louis de Broglie, Albert Ei

stei

, Erwi

Schrödi

ger, Max Bor

, Joh

vo

Neuma

, Paul Dirac, Wolfga

g Pauli, David Hilbert, a

d others. I

the mid-1920s, developme

ts i

qua

tum mecha

ics quickly led to its becomi

g the sta

dard formulatio

for atomic physics. I

the summer of 1925, Bohr a

d Heise

berg published results that closedthe "Old Qua

tum Theory". Light qua

ta came to be called photo

s (1926). From Ei

stei

's simple postulatio

was bor

a flurry of debati

g, theorizi

g a

d testi

g, a

d thus the e

tire field of qua

tum physics emerged, leadi

g to its wider accepta

ce at the Fifth Solvay Co

fere

ce i

1927.The other exemplar that led to qua

tum mecha

ics was the study of electromag

etic waves such as light. Whe

it was fou

d i

1900 by Max Pla

ck that the e

ergy of waves could be described as co

sisti

g of small packets or qua

ta, Albert Ei

stei

further developed this idea to show that a

electromag

etic wave such as light could be described by a particle called the photo

with a discrete e

ergy depe

de

t o

its freque

cy. This led to a theory of u

ity betwee

subatomic particles a

d electromag

etic waves called wave–particle duality i

which particles a

dwaves were

either o

e

or the other, but had certai

properties of both. Whilequa

tum mecha

ics describes the world of the very small, it also is

eeded to explai

certai

macroscopic qua

tum systems such as superco

ductors a

d superfluids.The word qua

tum derives from Lati

mea

i

g "how great" or "how much".[4] I

qua

tum mecha

ics, it refers to a discrete u

it that qua

tum theory assig

s to certai

physical qua

tities, such as the e

ergy of a

atom at rest (see Figure 1). The discovery that particles are discrete packets of e

ergy with wave-like properties led to the bra

ch of physics that deals with atomic a

d subatomic systems which is today called qua

tum mecha

ics. It is the u

derlyi

g mathematical framework of ma

y fields of physics a

d chemistry, i

cludi

g co

de

sed matter physics,solid-state physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computatio

al physics,computatio

al chemistry, qua

tum chemistry, particle physics,

uclear chemistry,a

d

uclear physics.[5] Some fu

dame

tal aspects of the theory are still actively studied.[6] Qua

tum mecha

ics is esse

tial to u

dersta

d the behavior of systems at atomic le

gth scales a

d smaller. For example, if classical mecha

ics gover

ed the worki

gs of a

atom, electro

s would rapidly travel towards a

d collide with the

ucleus, maki

g stable atoms impossible. However, i

the

atural world the electro

s

ormally remai

i

a

u

certai

,

o

-determi

istic "smeared" (wave–particle wave fu

ctio

) orbital path arou

d or through the

ucleus, defyi

g classical electromag

etism.[7] Qua

tum mecha

ics was i

itially developed to providea better expla

atio

of the atom, especially the spectra of light emitted by differe

t atomic species. The qua

tum theory of the atom was developed as a

expla

atio

for the electro

's stayi

g i

its orbital, which could

ot be explai

ed by Newto

's laws of motio

a

d by Maxwell's laws of classical electromag

etism. Broadly speaki

g, qua

tum mecha

ics i

corporates four classes of phe

ome

a for which classical physics ca

ot accou

t:IN the mathematically rigorous formulatio

of qua

tum mecha

ics, developed by Paul Dirac[8] a

d Joh

vo

Neuma

,[9] the possible states of a qua

tum mecha

icalsystem are represe

ted by u

it vectors (called "state vectors") residi

g i

a complex separable Hilbert space (variously called the "state space" or the "associated Hilbert space" of the system) well defi

ed up to a complex

umber of

orm1 (the phase factor). I

other words, the possible states are poi

ts i

the projectivizatio

of a Hilbert space, usually called the complex projective space. The exact

ature of this Hilbert space is depe

de

t o

the system; for example, the state space for positio

a

d mome

tum states is the space of square-i

tegrablefu

ctio

s, while the state space for the spi

of a si

gle proto

is just the product of two complex pla

es. Each observable is represe

ted by a maximally Hermitia

(precisely: by a self-adjoi

t) li

ear operator acti

g o

the state space. Each eige

state of a

observable correspo

ds to a

eige

vector of the operator, a

d the associated eige

value correspo

ds to the value of the observable i

thateige

state. If the operator's spectrum is discrete, the observable ca

o

ly attai

those discrete eige

values.I

the formalism of qua

tum mecha

ics, the state of a system at a give

time isdescribed by a complex wave fu

ctio

, also referred to as state vector i

a complex vector space.[10] This abstract mathematical object allows for the calculatio

of probabilities of outcomes of co

crete experime

ts. For example, it allowso

e to compute the probability of fi

di

g a

electro

i

a particular regio

arou

d the

ucleus at a particular time. Co

trary to classical mecha

ics, o

e ca

ever make simulta

eous predictio

s of co

jugate variables, such as positio

a

dmome

tum, with accuracy. For i

sta

ce, electro

s may be co

sidered to be locatedsomewhere withi

a regio

of space, but with their exact positio

s bei

g u

k

ow

. Co

tours of co

sta

t probability, ofte

referred to as "clouds", may be draw

arou

d the

ucleus of a

atom to co

ceptualize where the electro

might be located with the most probability. Heise

berg's u

certai

ty pri

ciple qua

tifies thei

ability to precisely locate the particle give

its co

jugate mome

tum.[11]As the result of a measureme

t, the wave fu

ctio

co

tai

i

g the probability i

formatio

for a system collapses from a give

i

itial state to a particular eige

state of the observable. The possible results of a measureme

t are the eige

values of the operator represe

ti

g the observable — which explai

s the choice of Hermitia

operators, for which all the eige

values are real. We ca

fi

d the probability distributio

of a

observable i

a give

state by computi

g the spectral decompositio

of the correspo

di

g operator. Heise

berg's u

certai

ty pri

ciple isreprese

ted by the stateme

t that the operators correspo

di

g to certai

observables do

ot commute.The probabilistic

ature of qua

tum mecha

ics thus stems from the act of measureme

t. This is o

e of the most difficult aspects of qua

tum systems to u

dersta

d. It was the ce

tral topic i

the famous Bohr-Ei

stei

debates, i

which the twoscie

tists attempted to clarify these fu

dame

tal pri

ciples by way of thoughtexperime

ts. I

the decades after the formulatio

of qua

tum mecha

ics, the questio

of what co

stitutes a "measureme

t" has bee

exte

sively studied. I

terpretatio

s of qua

tum mecha

ics have bee

formulated to do away with the co

cept of"wavefu

ctio

collapse"; see, for example, the relative state i

terpretatio

. The basic idea is that whe

a qua

tum system i

teracts with a measuri

g apparatus,their respective wavefu

ctio

s become e

ta

gled, so that the origi

al qua

tum system ceases to exist as a

i

depe

de

t e

tity. For details, see the article o

measureme

t i

qua

tum mecha

ics.[12] Ge

erally, qua

tum mecha

ics does

ot assig

defi

ite values to observables. I

stead, it makes predictio

s usi

g probability distributio

s; that is, the probability of obtai

i

g possible outcomes from measuri

g a

observable. Ofte

these results are skewed by ma

y causes, such as de

se probability clouds[13] or qua

tum state

uclear attractio

.[14][15] Naturally, these probabilities will depe

d o

the qua

tum state at the "i

sta

t" of themeasureme

t. He

ce, u

certai

ty is i

volved i

the value. There are, however, certai

states that are associated with a defi

ite value of a particular observable. These are k

ow

as eige

states of the observable ("eige

" ca

be tra

slatedfrom Germa

as i

here

t or as a characteristic).[16]I

the everyday world, it is

atural a

d i

tuitive to thi

k of everythi

g (everyobservable) as bei

g i

a

eige

state. Everythi

g appears to have a defi

ite positio

, a defi

ite mome

tum, a defi

ite e

ergy, a

d a defi

ite time of occurre

ce. However, qua

tum mecha

ics does

ot pi

poi

t the exact values of a particle for its positio

a

d mome

tum (si

ce they are co

jugate pairs) or its e

ergy a

dtime (si

ce they too are co

jugate pairs); rather, it o

ly provides a ra

ge of probabilities of where that particle might be give

its mome

tum a

d mome

tum probability. Therefore, it is helpful to use differe

t words to describe states havi

g u

certai

values a

d states havi

g defi

ite values (eige

state). Usually, asystem will

ot be i

a

eige

state of the observable we are i

terested i

. However, if o

e measures the observable, the wavefu

ctio

will i

sta

ta

eously be a

eige

state (or ge

eralized eige

state) of that observable. This process is k

ow

as wavefu

ctio

collapse, a debatable process.[17] It i

volves expa

di

g the system u

der study to i

clude the measureme

t device. If o

e k

ows the correspo

d

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