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Zn in Soils and Crop Nutrition 2008

Zn in Soils and Crop Nutrition 2008

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Published by: nboreiko on Aug 25, 2010
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Brian J. Aowa 
International Zinc Association
B. J. AllowaySecond edition, published by IZA and IFA Brussels, Belgium and Paris, France, 2008International Zinc Association168, Avenue de Tervueren, Box 4B-1150 Brussels, BelgiumTel: + 32 2 776 00 70Fax + 32 2 776 00 89(www.zincworld.org)International Fertilizer Industry Association.28 rue Marbeuf 75008 Paris, FranceTel: + 33 1 53 93 05 00Fax: + 33 1 53 93 05 45/ 47(www.fertilizer.org)Layout and graphics: Hilaire PletinckxThe designation employed and the presentationof material in this information product do notimply the expression of any opinion whatsoeveron the part of the International Zinc Associationand the International Fertilizer Industry Association. This includes matters relating to thelegal status of any country, territory, city or areaor its authorities, or concerning the delimitationof its frontiers or boundaries.Mention of any proprietary products in thisreport does not necessarily imply that their use isendorsed by either the author or the publishers.
Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient and has particular physiological functions in all living systems,such as the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of biological membranes and facilitationof protein synthesis and gene expression. Among all metals, Zn is needed by the largest number of proteins. Zinc-binding proteins make up nearly 10 % of the proteomes in eukaryotic cells, and 36%of the eukaryotic Zn-proteins are involved in gene expression
(Andreini et al., 2006, J. Proteome Res.5: 3173-3178)
. Tolerance to environmental stress conditions has a high requirement for Zn to regulateand maintain the expression of genes needed to protect cells from the detrimental effects of stress
(Cakmak, 2000, New Phytol. 146:185-205)
.Zinc deficiency appears to be the most widespread and frequent micronutrient deficiency problem incrop and pasture plants worldwide, resulting in severe losses in yield and nutritional quality. This isparticularly the case in areas of cereal production. It is estimated that nearly half the soils on whichcereals are grown have levels of available Zn low enough to cause Zn deficiency. Since cereal grainshave inherently low Zn concentrations, growing them on these potentially Zn-deficient soils furtherdecreases grain Zn concentration. It is, therefore, not surprising that the well-documented Zn deficien-cy problem in humans occurs predominantly in the countries/regions such as India, China, Pakistanand Turkey where soils are low in available Zn, and cereals are the major source of calorie intake.Zinc deficiency in humans is a critical nutritional and health problem in the world. It affects, on average,one-third of the world’s population, ranging from 4 to 73 % in different countries
(Hotz and Brown,2004, Food Nutr Bull 25: 94-204)
. The recent analyses made under the Copenhagen Consensus in2008 (www.copenhagenconsensus.com) identified Zn deficiency, together with vitamin A deficiency,as the top priority global issue, and concluded that elimination of the Zn deficiency problem will resultin immediate high impacts and high returns for humanity in the developing world.It is, therefore, highly important to develop cost-effective and quick solutions to the Zn deficiencyproblem. Low Zn in plant tissues is a reflection of both genetic- and soil-related factors. A basicknowledge of the dynamics of Zn in soils, understanding of the uptake and transport of Zn in plantsystems and characterizing the response of plants to Zn deficiency are essential steps in achievingsustainable solutions to the problem of Zn deficiency in plants and humans.This book “
 Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition
” by Brian Alloway contributes significantly to our betterunderstanding of the complexities of Zn dynamics in soil and plant systems. It contains very valuablebasic and practical information for a wide audience, including students, agronomists and scientistswho are involved in research, extension or education in soil science, plant mineral nutrition, plantphysiology and also human nutrition. Detailed information on the prevalence and diagnosis of Zndeficiency problems for a number of countries and crop plants is an excellent feature of this book.This book has been available electronically since 2004. It has now been decided to publish thisupdated version in a print format. This is a great idea that will further contribute to a wide distributionof the useful information contained in the book.I would like to congratulate Prof Brian Alloway on this excellent achievement, and thank theInternational Zinc Association (IZA) and the International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) for theirsupport which has made the publication of such a valuable book possible.
Ismai Cakmak 
Sabanci UniversityJuly 2008, Istanbul

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