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Speeches of Z. A. Bhutto 1948-66

Speeches of Z. A. Bhutto 1948-66

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Published by Sani Panhwar
Speeches and Interviews of Z. A. Bhutto
Speeches and Interviews of Z. A. Bhutto

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Published by: Sani Panhwar on Aug 25, 2010
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Z. A. Bhutto, Speeches-Interviews 1948-1966; Copyright © www.bhutto.org  1
The articles, statements and speeches collected for the three-volume “
Politics of the People
” are by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, President of the Islamic Republic ofPakistan. The titles of the three volumes -
Reshaping Foreign Policy, Awakening thePeople,
Marching Towards Democracy
—are indicative of his main contributionsto Pakistan’s political development before he became President on l0th December,1971 at the age of forty-three.Progressive in ideas, persuasive in their advocacy and persistent in theirimplementation, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s exposure to politics began at an early acre.As a student in Bombay he took part in the Pakistan Movement which in sevenyears, under the inspiring leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mahomed Ali Jinnah andthe overwhelming support of the people, resulted in 1947, in the establishment ofPakistan as an independent and sovereign state—a homeland for the Muslims inthe South-Asian subcontinent.In Pakistan’s early years Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was abroad studying politicalscience, jurisprudence and international law; in Los Angeles at the University ofSouthern California and in Berkeley at the University of California from wherehe graduated in 1950 with Honors in Political Science, and at Christ ChurchCollege at Oxford University from where in 1952 he got his M.A. with Honors in Jurisprudence. He was called to the Bar in London at Lincoln’s Inn in 1953 andwas then appointed Lecturer in International Law, University of Southampton.On his return to Pakistan he taught constitutional law in the Sindh Muslim LawCollege, Karachi and at about the same time, 1954-58, practised as a barrister atthe West Pakistan High Court in Karachi.Before his appointment as Commerce Minister in the Pakistan Government in1958—the youngest Central Minister in the subcontinent he had representedPakistan at the United Nations General Assembly in 1957, making an impressivedebut with his statement on defining “aggression,” and led the Pakistandelegation to the Law of the Sea Conference at Geneva in March, 1958. Afterholding various other portfolios he was appointed in 1963 as Minister for ForeignAffairs, a field in which he had already made significant contributions—asMinister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources of a Government fullycommitted to CENTO and SEATO he signed an Oil Agreement with the SovietUnion in 1960, led the Pakistan delegation in 1962 for six rounds of talks withIndia on the Kashmir issue, and was Chairman of the Pakistan delegation to theUnited Nations General Assembly in 1959 and 1960. After he became ForeignMinister he again led the Pakistan delegation to the General Assembly in 1963,1964 and 1965, and to several meetings of the Security Council. He resigned from
Z. A. Bhutto, Speeches-Interviews 1948-1966; Copyright © www.bhutto.org  2
the Government in 1966 following his differences with Ayub Khan over theTashkent Declaration.After leaving the Government, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto organised a new politicalparty which soon had a mass following, an achievement of no mean orderconsidering that the Government in power barely acknowledged the politicalclaims of the party to which it nominally itself belonged. The country had beendepoliticalised over the years and the Government was hostile to any movementwhich ‘would disturb the status quo. The Government drew its strength from thearmed forces .and its functional support from the bureaucrats working hand inglove with the industrialists and feudal land owners. How this complexfunctioned is disclosed in the speeches and statements of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in
 Awakening the People
 Marching Towards Democracy
.The story of the massive people’s movement which ultimately swept Zulfikar AliBhutto to power on the basis of the great electoral victory won by his PakistanPeople’s Party in the general elections of 1970 emerges vividly from these books.It was a victory against great odds, toppling in the first battle a military regimewell-entrenched for over a decade. The imprisonment of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto is animportant landmark in his struggle against the Ayub regime. His reply to thetrumped-up charges became an indictment of the regime itself. Hisimprisonment, instead of stopping the people’s movement, resulted in astaggering blow to the desperate regime. A round table conference of all politicalparties was called by Ayub Khan to work out a compromise. Zulfikar Ali Bhuttostaved out, in “continuous conference” with the people, saying that the regimewas only trying to strike a bargain to perpetuate itself. A few weeks later, AyubKhan resigned and another military dictator, General Yahya Khan took over.The new dictator conceded that general elections based on adult franchise wouldbe held. Voters went to the polls twenty-on months after the Yahya regime cameto power and promulgated Martial Law. During this period new combinationswere made and political fronts formed to counter the People’s Party. The regimeitself supported some of them. His book, The Myth of Independence, wasbanned. Religious leaders with obscurantist views and others with vestedinterests in a powerful bureaucracy not accountable to the people, feudal chiefsfearful of losing their hold over their tribes and income from their lands, andindustrialists making exorbitant profits opposed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto with all themeans at their disposal. He survived attempts to assassinate him, and withcourage and determination, he continued to canvass support for the PakistanPeople’s Party and its election manifesto which was based on the motto of “Islamis our Faith, Democracy is our Polity, and Socialism is our Economy, All Powerto the People.” The counting of ballots showed that his party had broken throughthe tribal voting pattern; awakened the people and’ made them understand how

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