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Natural Gas- Alternative energy

Natural Gas- Alternative energy

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Published by bakerybazar
Energy savings in fuel can achieved through switching over to natural gas from diesel oils

for more on energy savings visit http://shumaonline.com
Energy savings in fuel can achieved through switching over to natural gas from diesel oils

for more on energy savings visit http://shumaonline.com

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Published by: bakerybazar on Aug 26, 2010
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08/31/2010

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NATURAL GAS :
Like crude oil, it is a naturally occurring resourceformed millions of years ago as a result of heat and pressure acting ondecayed organic material. It is extracted from wells sunk into theearth. The main ingredient in natural gas is methane (94%).Natural gas is odorless, colorless and tasteless in itsnatural state. It is nontoxic, but if released within an enclosed area itcan displace oxygen and act as a simple asphyxiant. When mixed withthe proper amount of air, it is flammable/explosive.At ambient temperatures it remains in gaseousform; however, it can be compressed (CNG) under high pressure tomake it convenient for use in other applications or liquefied (LNG)under extremely cold temperatures (-260°F) to facilitate efficienttransportation of the gas.Natural Gas is currently transported either inpipe line network ( at moderate pressure ) with compressorstations at regular intervals along the pipe line network tocompress and push the natural gas further when the pressuredrops due to long distance or after liquefication by LNG carrierin liquid state.
Compressed Natural Gas ( CNG ) :
 
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute forgasoline(petrol)ordiesel fuel. It is considered to be an environmentally "clean" alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing purifiednatural gas, and is typically stored and distributed in hard containers.A CNG propelledautorickshawon the streets of New Delhi,Delhi.
 
CNG is produced by compressing natural gas at 3,000 psipressure (conventional cooking gas is supplied at 25 psi pressure atthe burner). Natural gas is usually transmitted by pipelines to refuellingstations ( at 25 – 30 psi ) and compressed at a pressure of 3,000 psiwith the help of specially installed compressors to enable it to beloaded as gas cylinders for vehicles. Vehicles that are equipped withappropriate fuel conversion kits and tanks (gas cylinder) cancomfortably run on CNG.
LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS ( LNG )
When chilled to very cold temperatures (-260°F) natural gaschanges into a liquid. In this form, liquefied natural gas (LNG) takes uponly 1/600th of the space that natural gas would in its gaseous stateand thus can be stored and transported more efficiently.LNG can be loaded onto specially built tankers (large ships withseveral domed and thermally insulated tanks) and moved across theoceans to deliver gas to other countries. When LNG is received, it iswarmed and changed back to its gaseous state. It can then be injectedinto natural gas transmission pipelines for further transportation. LNGcan also be shipped by truck or stored until it is needed forregasification and use.LNG can be very useful, particularly for the transportation of natural gas, since LNG takes up about one six hundredth the volume of gaseous natural gas.
While LNG is reasonably costly to produce,
advances in technology are reducing the costs associated with theliquification and regasification of LNG. Because it is easy to transport,LNG can serve to make economical to those stranded natural gasdeposits for which the construction of pipelines is uneconomical.
 
1. ProductionNatural gas is produced
[Photo courtesy of  http://www.ead.anl.gov  ]
2. LNG Liquefication TerminalGas is liquefied3. TransportationTanker transports LNG4. LNG TerminalLNG is stored and vaporized5. DistributionNatural gas is transported via pipelinesto markets6. Consumption Consumers use natural gas for cookingand heating purposes
LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS ( LPG ) : 
LPG is a byproduct of petroleum refining or natural gasprocessing.LPG is the generic name for commercial propane andcommercial butane. Commercial Propane predominantly consists of hydrocarbons containing three carbon atoms, mainly propane (C3H8).Commercial Butane predominantly consists of hydrocarbons containingfour carbon atoms, mainly n- and iso - butanes (C4H10).
LPG whatwe get is ( 30 % Propane and 70 % Butane )

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