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Trigonometry

Trigonometry

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Trigonometry
Edition 1.0 7th March 2006
From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection
Note: current version of this book can be found at http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Trigonometry

2
T
RIGONOMETRY
........................................................................................................................................................1A
UTHORS
...................................................................................................................................................................3P
REREQUISITES
A
ND
B
ASICS
.....................................................................................................................................4I
NTRODUCTION
..........................................................................................................................................................4I
N SIMPLE TERMS
.......................................................................................................................................................4
Simple introduction..............................................................................................................................................4 Angle-values simplified........................................................................................................................................5
R
D
EGREE
M
EASURE
...............................................................................................................................7
A Definition and Terminology of Angles..............................................................................................................7 The radian measure .............................................................................................................................................7 Converting from Radians to Degrees...................................................................................................................9 Exercises..............................................................................................................................................................9
T
HE
U
NIT
C
IRCLE
....................................................................................................................................................11T
RIGONOMETRIC
A
NGULAR
F
UNCTIONS
..................................................................................................................12
Geometrically defining sin and cosine...............................................................................................................12Geometrically defining tangent..........................................................................................................................13 Domain and range of circular functions............................................................................................................14 Applying the trigonometric functions to a right-angled triangle .......................................................................14
R
IGHT
A
NGLE
T
RIGONOMETRY
...............................................................................................................................14G
RAPHS OF
S
INE AND
C
OSINE
F
UNCTIONS
..............................................................................................................16G
RAPHS OF
O
THER
T
RIGONOMETRIC
F
UNCTIONS
....................................................................................................17I
NVERSE
T
RIGONOMETRIC
F
UNCTIONS
....................................................................................................................21
The Inverse Functions, Restrictions, and Notation............................................................................................21The Inverse Relations.........................................................................................................................................21
A
PPLICATIONS AND
M
ODELS
...................................................................................................................................23
Simple harmonic motion ....................................................................................................................................23
A
NALYTIC
T
RIGONOMETRY
.....................................................................................................................................26U
SING
F
UNDAMENTAL
I
DENTITIES
..........................................................................................................................26S
OLVING
T
RIGONOMETRIC
E
QUATIONS
...................................................................................................................28
Basic trigonometric equations ...........................................................................................................................28Further examples ...............................................................................................................................................33
S
UM AND
D
IFFERENCE
F
ORMULAS
..........................................................................................................................35
Cosine Formulas................................................................................................................................................35Sine Formulas....................................................................................................................................................35Tangent Formulas..............................................................................................................................................35 Derivations.........................................................................................................................................................35
M
ULTIPLE
-A
NGLE AND
P
RODUCT
-
TO
-
SUM
F
ORMULAS
...........................................................................................37
Multiple-Angle Formulas...................................................................................................................................37 Proofs for Double Angle Formulas....................................................................................................................37
A
DDITIONAL
T
OPICS IN
T
RIGONOMETRY
.................................................................................................................38L
AW OF
S
INES
..........................................................................................................................................................38L
AW OF
C
OSINES
.....................................................................................................................................................39V
ECTORS AND
D
OT
P
RODUCTS
................................................................................................................................41T
RIGONOMETRIC
F
ORM OF THE
C
OMPLEX
N
UMBER
................................................................................................41T
RIGONOMETRY
R
EFERENCES
.................................................................................................................................42T
RIGONOMETRIC
F
ORMULA
R
EFERENCE
.................................................................................................................42T
RIGONOMETRIC
I
DENTITIES
R
EFERENCE
................................................................................................................42
Pythagoras.........................................................................................................................................................42Sum/Difference of angles...................................................................................................................................42Product to Sum...................................................................................................................................................43Sum and difference to product ...........................................................................................................................43 Double angle......................................................................................................................................................43

3
Half angle...........................................................................................................................................................44Power Reduction................................................................................................................................................44 Even/Odd............................................................................................................................................................44Calculus .............................................................................................................................................................45
N
ATURAL
T
RIGONOMETRIC
F
UNCTIONS OF
P
RIMARY
A
NGLES
...............................................................................46L
ICENSE
...................................................................................................................................................................48
GNU Free Documentation License....................................................................................................................480. PREAMBLE ...................................................................................................................................................481. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS..........................................................................................................482. VERBATIM COPYING...................................................................................................................................493. COPYING IN QUANTITY..............................................................................................................................494. MODIFICATIONS.........................................................................................................................................495. COMBINING DOCUMENTS.........................................................................................................................506. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS ..............................................................................................................507. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS .......................................................................................518. TRANSLATION..............................................................................................................................................519. TERMINATION..............................................................................................................................................5110. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE..................................................................................................51 External links.....................................................................................................................................................51
Authors
Lmov, Evil Saltine, JEdwards, llg, Programmermatt, Alsocal (Wikibooks Users)