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Kinetics Thermodynamics

Kinetics Thermodynamics

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Published by: syedmuhammadtarique on Aug 26, 2010
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08/26/2010

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- 1 -
Chemical Kinetics and Thermodynamics
Chemical Kinetics
- concerned with:1.
Rates of Chemical Reactions
-# of moles of reactant used up or product formedUnit timeOr2.
Reaction Mechanisms
-
Rate of Reaction and the Collision Theory
 
Reactions take place at different rates
Collision Theory
 ·
Used to explain why reactions take place at different rates
 ·
Effective Collision
 
Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction
1.
 ·
What bonds are being broken and formed?Fast = slight rearrangement of electronsAgNO
3
+ NaCl
à
AgCl ppct. + NaNO
3
---FAST!In reactions in which
ionic bonds
are broken and formed occur
quickly
at roomtemperatureSlow= many
covalent bonds
broken2H
2
O
2
à
2H
2
O + O
2
---Slow!Reactions that include
covalent bonds
being broken and formed occur very
slowly
atroom temperature
2.
·
An increase in concentration of any one of the reactants usually, but not alwaysincreases the rate of the reaction if the reaction is homogeneousi. Homogeneous reactions- all the reactants are in the same phase.ii. Heterogeneous reactions- reactants are in more than one phase.I.e.- rusting
 ·
How can we increase the concentration of reactants in the following:i. Gases-ii. Liquids-
 
- 2 -
Collision Theory
-Heterogeneous systems- solid and liquid- increase……Surface AreaGrinding, pulverizing, smashing, stirring, pureeing, blending, etc, etc, etcReactions that incorporate two gasesPartial pressure increase in one of the gases results in an increase in reaction rate:
 ·
As a result of decreased volume or
 ·
Increase in the number of molecules of gas
3. Temperature
 For many reactions- 10
o
C increase in temperature = 2X rate
Collision Theory
-Temperature increase =
 ··
Energy Distribution Curve
4.
·
Catalyst-
 ·
Pt metal
 ·
Enzymes2H
2
O
2
à
2H
2
O + O
2
---Slow!2H
2
O
2
à
2H
2
O + O
2
---Fast of MnO
2
present as catalyst
5.
·
Only for systems in which the reactants are in more than one phaseSolid and a liquid
Reaction Mechanisms
 
2C
2
H
2
(g) + 5O
2
(g)
à
4CO
2
(g) + 2H
2
O(l)What is the likelihood that 2 acetylene molecules will come into contact with 5 oxygenmolecules with the correct orientation and energy?Most reactions proceed through a series of simple steps
 ·
Each step- collision of two particles
 
- 3 -
Reaction Mechanism
-
 ·
Consider:2A + B
à
A
2
BIt is unlikely that this reaction occurs in one step. One proposed mechanism may be-OROften, chemists don‛t know the mechanism. They may only know the end result.Why might it be difficult?
 ·
It is difficult to determine the reaction mechanisms because the intermediateproducts have short livesIntermediate products have structures unlike the structure of either the products orthe reactants
Activated Complex
:
 ·
Reaction Mechanisms and Rates of Reactions
Rate determining step
-We stated earlier:
 An increase in concentration not always increases the rate of a homogeneous reaction 
 WHY?-
Potential Energy Diagrams
 
·
A pictorial way to describe the energy involved in a reaction
 Activation Energy and Temperature, Concentration, and Catalysts 
Activated Complex:
 ·
Short lived, unstable particle that will temporarily exist when reacting molecules collideat the proper angle with the proper amount of energy
Rate Laws
 
·
A rate law is an equation that can be used to calculate the reaction rate for any givenconcentration of reactants.

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