What is Morphology
= form or shape,
= study of
Morphology is the study of the basic building blocksof meaning in language. These building blocks,called
, are the smallest units of formthat bear meaning or have a grammatical function.
What Are Morphemes?
Words are not the most basic units of meaning.They are frequently composed of even more basicelements.(1) a.
: homework, dinnertime, moonlight,classroomb.
: fearless, quickly, ﬁshing,momentaryc.
: walks, tenth, dog’s, ﬂipped
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The most basic elements of meaning are called
. Each of the preceding examplescontained at least 2 morphemes. We can take,for instance, ”th” from ”tenth” and say that ithas a meaning all to itself – namely, ”the ordinalnumeral corresponding to the cardinal numeral I’mattached to”.
Basic Concept Of Word Structure
Morphemes do not combine in arbitrary ways.There are deﬁnite patterns to the distribution of morphemes in polymorphemic words. e.g. rewrite
s-walk. The number, order of and type of morphemes used to make up a particularword is called its
. Morphologists study notonly the meanings of the various morphemes, butalso their patterns of distribution – the
they are capable of forming. This knowledge is partof linguistic
The structure of words can be represented by
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Classiﬁcation Of Morphemes
Free And Bound Morphemes
A morpheme is
if it is able to appear as a wordby itself. It is
if it can only appear as part of a larger, multi-morphemic word. Every morphemeis either free or bound.
Free morphemes are also referred as
morphemes are also referred to as
,among which there are
: un-happy, re-write, pre-viewb.
: writ-ing, quick-ly, neighbor-hoodc.
: (very rare in English) speech-o-meter
morphemes may be
can be deﬁned as a root to which an aﬃxcan be added. Thus, the root
is also a stem,because, even though it contains no aﬃx(es), anaﬃx could be added to it - to form, e.g., dog-s.This notion is necessary because not all roots aresuch that aﬃxes can be added to them - e.g.,