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Comparison of ISO 9000:1994 to ISO 9000:2000

Comparison of ISO 9000:1994 to ISO 9000:2000

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Published by: cusani_c on Aug 27, 2010
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AT THE CORETHIS ARTICLE DISCUSSESHow records and information managers can participate in their organizations' qualitymanagement processesWhy the revised standard is more accessible and applicable to RIMS beyond themanufacturing industry
What changes have been incorporated in ISO 9001:2000
ISO 9001:2000 is an internationally recognized quality management system (QMS)standard affecting thousands of organizations around the world. A new version, whichis scheduled for publication in late 2000, will replace ISO 9001:1994 and will haveboth a new look and a new scope as its image as a purely manufacturing standard iseclipsed and it becomes more acceptable to other sectors. Late 2000 will be the startof a busy period for anyone directly involved in an organization's ISO 9001certification activities. One of the disciplines affected will be records and informationmanagement (RIM).Provided they take a proactive role, information management professionals will findsignificant new opportunities to participate more fully than ever before in theirorganization's quality management processes. The focus of these opportunities lies inthe area of documentation of an organization's processes and its related informationand records systems.This overview of the new standard should be a call to information managers in allsectors to look carefully at the standard to begin to understand its implications forthem.The final draft of ISO 9001: 2000, Quality Management Systems Requirements, wasissued on February 22, 1999. Its adoption will continue to have a major influence onthe manufacturing industry where it has long been accepted as the benchmark of quality management. The standard's most significant change is its potentialapplicability to industries other than manufacturing.This article has a dual focus. First, it outlines the main elements of the agreementreached on a new version of ISO 9001. Second, it examines the new standard's impacton information management professionals.While some service and software industries had already adopted ISO 9001, mostorganizations in these industries declined in the beginning to treat ISO 9001 seriously.They justified their lack of interest on the grounds that the standard was applicableonly to manufacturing quality management systems.The more generic and expanded character of ISO 9001:2000 clearly challenges thisview. The strong manufacturing bias reflected in the content and structure of both theoriginal 1987 standard and its 1994 revised version is now a thing of the past. Service
and software organizations are likely to face increasing pressure to measure thequality of their organizations against the benchmarks outlined in ISO 9001:2000.
Background and Future of ISO 9001:2000
ISO 9001 serves as the basis for benchmarking an organization's quality managementsystem. Quality management should not be confused with terms such as qualityassurance" or quality control. Quality management measures the overall managementfunction in determining the organization's quality policy, its objectives, and itsresponsibilities, as well as the quality policy implementation through means such asquality assurance and quality control. Quality assurance measures all planned andsystematic activities implemented within the organizations quality system. Qualitycontrol is the operational techniques and activities used to fulfil quality requirements(e.g., meeting a customer's specifications or requirements for a given product orservice).Revision of the ISO 9000 standards has been under discussion for a number of years.Soon after the 1994 revisions, ISO Technical Committee 176 began the task of overcoming the standard's manufacturing bias while, at the same time, overcomingother persistent criticisms that the standard did not adequately cover all aspects of theQMS.The development of ISO 9001:2000 has been a particularly interesting process tobehold. It is an object lesson in consensus building. ISO Technical Committee 176,with the participation of various national standards bodies, has actually managed toovercome criticisms from apparently opposite directions and written a document thatappears to be acceptable to the great majority of ISO's member bodies.The manufacturing industry criticized the older versions of ISO 9001 for its failure toinclude a large range of quality management requirements in the standard. Somemanufacturing industries considered ISO 9001 to be so inadequate that theydeveloped their own expanded, industry-specific versions of the ISO 9001 standard.ISO was also criticized by non-manufacturing industries for catering to themanufacturing industries. Everything about the older versions of ISO 9001 seemedoverwhelmingly rooted in a manufacturing environment.The ISO technical committee found itself in a dilemma and then found a way out. ISO9001:2000 appears to have actually reached a satisfactory compromise in which thelanguage is generic enough to be applicable to industries other than manufacturing yetspecific enough to satisfy the particular concerns of the manufacturing industry.ISO Technical Committee 176's objective was to overcome the apparent conflictbetween the manufacturing industry's specific requirements and the demand to makethe standard more accessible and more clearly applicable to other industries. Thisobjective also led to changes in the structure and organization of what used to be aseries of standards and guidelines. ISO 9001:2000 will replace all three 1994standards (9001, 9002, and 9003). Once ISO 9001:2000 is published, ISO 9002 andISO 9003 will become obsolete.
All organizations will have to fulfill all the requirements in ISO 9001:2000. Arequirement is now inapplicable only if the function or activity it describes is notperformed at all. In other words, organizations that may have certified under ISO9002 to avoid including design and development activities in the scope of theircertification can no longer do so. If they perform design and development activities,these activities must be included as part of the ISO 9001:2000 certification.ISO 9001:2000 will have a structure that resembles ISO 14001:1996, an internationalstandard that specifies the requirements for the certification of an organization'senvironmental management system (EMS). Titled Environmental ManagementSystems - Specification with Guidance for Use, ISO 14001 measures adherence tolegislative requirements and information about significant environmental impacts.Like the EMS standard, the ISO 9001:2000 standard will be divided into five broadmanagement principles. In part, this approach is intended to suggest that commonsubjects between ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:1996 may be implemented in ashared manner to avoid duplication of effort.As far as actual implementation of the new standard was concerned, ISO TechnicalCommittee 176 recommended that implementation of ISO 9001:2000 could begin asearly as the fourth quarter of 1999 -- one full year in advance of the standard'sscheduled publication. The ISO technical committee made this recommendationbecause ISO works through a lengthy consultative process to achieve a consensus.Once a consensus was obtained (in early 1999), further changes became improbable.
New Elements and Emphases
What has actually changed in ISO 9001:2000 that makes it so new and improved?While ISO 9001:2000 retains most of the content of the 1987 and 1994 versions, italso contains substantive additions. Most of the specific changes fall under two broadcategories: 1) customer satisfaction and 2) the quality management function. Somechanges are quite broad in character.In ISO 9001:1994 the scope declares the achievement of customer satisfaction as thestandard's primary aim, but it was not then a requirement. In ISO 9001:2000, however,the achievement of customer satisfaction becomes an explicit requirement that findsexpression in several sections of the standard. One requirement, for example, is thatthe organization must identify and review customer requirements. Another newparagraph focuses on management's responsibility to ensure that customerrequirements are met. Yet a third requires the measuring and monitoring of customersatisfaction.Customer satisfaction and conformity to customer requirements will also play a majorrole in determining where improvements can be made in an organization. Clearly,there are opportunities here for information managers to show the centrality of theirwork to the organization in areas of documentation.ISO 9001:2000 also places a much stronger emphasis on the quality managementfunction of the organization as distinct from its quality assurance activities. Although

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