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Wildfire Combustion Chemistry & Smoke

Wildfire Combustion Chemistry & Smoke

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Published by Miltos Boboulos
The book presents the main aspects involved in the ignition and behaviour of biomass materials in fires taking place in an evenly distributed vegetation. At present, research relating to forest fires is focused on the development of models based on detailed descriptions of the physical nature of processes taking place. This involves both in-depth experimental studies but also employs methods for describing the variety of phenomena observed in this multidisciplinary area: heat transfer processes between individual phases and within each phase; decomposition of solid vegetation particles and mass transition into the gas phase; chemical processes of gas-type of combustion; and surface reaction.
Reviewed are basic approaches for modelling the heating up, ignition and vegetation burning Thermal decomposition of the vegetation comprises the drying – an endothermic process of evaporation of moisture; and devolatilization, a process of releasing the main combustible fractions, volatiles, char and tar. Vegetation combustion involves the oxidation of these three basic products accompanied by the release of heat which maintains the processes of thermal decomposition and fire spread. Section 3 and 4 also present the basic reaction models and chemical reaction sets used for the modelling of the combustion; these are primarily based on the oxidation of hydrocarbons and methane in particular.
The book presents the main aspects involved in the ignition and behaviour of biomass materials in fires taking place in an evenly distributed vegetation. At present, research relating to forest fires is focused on the development of models based on detailed descriptions of the physical nature of processes taking place. This involves both in-depth experimental studies but also employs methods for describing the variety of phenomena observed in this multidisciplinary area: heat transfer processes between individual phases and within each phase; decomposition of solid vegetation particles and mass transition into the gas phase; chemical processes of gas-type of combustion; and surface reaction.
Reviewed are basic approaches for modelling the heating up, ignition and vegetation burning Thermal decomposition of the vegetation comprises the drying – an endothermic process of evaporation of moisture; and devolatilization, a process of releasing the main combustible fractions, volatiles, char and tar. Vegetation combustion involves the oxidation of these three basic products accompanied by the release of heat which maintains the processes of thermal decomposition and fire spread. Section 3 and 4 also present the basic reaction models and chemical reaction sets used for the modelling of the combustion; these are primarily based on the oxidation of hydrocarbons and methane in particular.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Miltos Boboulos on Aug 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Wildfire Combustion Chemistry& Smoke
Fire Sciences Laboratory,Department of Mechanical Engineering,Technological Educational Institute,Larissa, Greece
Dr. Miltiadis A. Boboulos
 
I
TABLE OF CONTENTS1.
 
INTRODUCTION_________________________________________________________1
 
2.
 
BIOMASS FUEL PROPERTIES AND COMBUSTION_________________________3
 
2.1.
 
PROPERTIES OF BIOMASS FUEL___________________________________________3
 
2.2.
 
PYROLYSIS AND ITS PRODUCTS___________________________________________5
 
2.3.
 
PROPERTIES OF THE BIOMASS COMBUSTION PROCESS____________________7
 2.3.1. Flaming and glowing______________________________________________102.3.2. Smoke production________________________________________________112.3.2.1. Release of carbon_________________________________________112.3.2.2. Particles formation________________________________________122.3.2.3. Emission of trace gases and pollutant emissions_________________132.3.2.3.1. Nitrogen gases____________________________________142.3.2.3.2. Sulfur emissions (carbonyl sulfide)____________________152.3.2.3.3. Methyl chloride___________________________________152.3.2.3.4. Carbon monoxide__________________________________152.3.2.3.5. Methane_________________________________________152.3.3. Biomass combustion process_______________________________________162.3.3.1. Drying_________________________________________________162.3.3.2. Devolatilization__________________________________________17
3.
 
COMBUSTION PROCESS MODELLING___________________________________18
 
3.1.
 
TURBULENT COMBUSTION MODELS______________________________________19
 3.1.1. Turbulent combustion models, based on the “flamelet theory”_____________193.1.2. Probability density function models (PDF)_____________________________193.1.3. Turbulent models based on the eddy dissipation approach_________________193.1.3.1. Eddy Break Up Model (EBU)_______________________________193.1.3.2. Eddy Dissipation Combustion Model (EDM)___________________20
3.2.
 
MODELLING OF THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS_____________________________21
 3.2.1. Methane oxidation model__________________________________________213.2.2. Full mechanism__________________________________________________223.2.3. Skeletal mechanism_______________________________________________223.2.4. Reduced mechanism______________________________________________223.2.4.1. Four steps reduced mechanism:______________________________223.2.4.2. Two steps reduced mechanism______________________________223.2.4.3. One step global reaction mechanism__________________________23
 
II
3.3.
 
MODELLING OF THE TURBULENCE-CHEMICAL REACTIONSINTERACTION___________________________________________________________24
 3.3.1. The smallest rate is the limiting_____________________________________243.3.2. The series process approach________________________________________24
3.4.
 
BIOMASS COMBUSTION MODELLING_____________________________________25
 3.4.1. The energy value of biomass________________________________________253.4.1.1. Energy value basic concepts_______________________________253.4.1.2. Ash contents in the biomass________________________________263.4.1.3. Carbon contents__________________________________________263.4.1.4. Water contents___________________________________________263.4.1.5. Organic contents_________________________________________273.4.1.6. Gas production___________________________________________273.4.1.7. Char production:_________________________________________283.4.1.8. Tar production___________________________________________283.4.1.9. Thermal cracking of tar: kinetic analysis_______________________293.4.1.10. Biomass combustion______________________________________293.4.1.7. Rates of combustion______________________________________303.4.1.8. Metal contents in biomass__________________________________313.4.1.9. Biomass devolatilization rates_______________________________323.4.2. Model development_______________________________________________343.4.2.1. Main assumptions________________________________________343.4.2.2. Mathematical description of the combustion process_____________343.4.2.2.1. Moisture evaporation_______________________________343.4.2.2.2. Fuel pyrolysis_____________________________________353.4.2.2.3. Combustion of the volatiles__________________________353.4.2.2.4. Char oxidation____________________________________36
REFERENCES:_____________________________________________________________38
 

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