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Hatch-The Dynamics of Organizational culture

Hatch-The Dynamics of Organizational culture

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Published by frannas85
A dynamic conceptual model explaining the creation, maintenance and change of organizational culture. An advancement of Schein's initial model
A dynamic conceptual model explaining the creation, maintenance and change of organizational culture. An advancement of Schein's initial model

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The Dynamics of Organizational CultureAuthor(s): Mary Jo HatchSource:
The Academy of Management Review,
Vol. 18, No. 4 (Oct., 1993), pp. 657-693Published by: Academy of ManagementStable URL:
Accessed: 19/07/2010 05:46
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$AcademyofManagementReview1993,Vol. 18,No.4,657-693.
THE DYNAMICSOFORGANIZATIONAL ULTURE
MARYJOHATCHCopenhagenBusinessSchooland SanDiegoStateUniversity
Schein's(1985)model oforganizationalculture asassumptions,val-ues,and artifactsleavesgapsregardingtheappreciationoforgani-zational culture assymbolsandprocesses.Thisarticleexaminesthesegapsandsuggestsanew model that combinesSchein'stheorywith ideas drawn fromsymbolic-interpretiveperspectives.Thenewmodel, called culturaldynamics,articulatestheprocessesofmani-festation,realization, symbolization,andinterpretationandprovidesa framework withinwhich to discuss thedynamismoforganizationalcultures.Implicationsof the culturaldynamicsmodel forcollectingandanalyzingculture data and for futuretheoreticaldevelopmentarepresented.
Theconceptofculture has been centraltoanthropology and folklorestudiesfor over acentury.Practitionersofthesedisciplineshavepro-ducedanenormousbodyofliterature,andduringthe1940s and50ssomeof theirresearch dealtdirectlywiththecustomsandtraditions ofworkorganizations (e.g.,Chapple, 1941,1943;Dalton,1959; Messenger,1978;Roy, 1952, 1954,1960;Whyte,1948,1951, 1961).This trendwasparalleledinsociology byJacques (1951),amongothers,whowrote about thecultureofthefactory.Althoughorganizationalculturestudies beganto appeararound theearly 1970s(Clark,1972; Pettigrew,1973;Trice,Belasco, &Alutto,1969; Turner,1973),itwasnotuntil the 1980sthatmanagementscholarswidelyadoptedthecultureconcept(Deal&Kennedy,1982;Kilmann,Saxton,Serpa,&Associates,1985; Ouchi,1981;Pascale &Athos,1981;Peters&Waterman,1982;Sathe,1985). Inthis regard,Schein(1981,1983,1984, 1985) wasespeciallyinfluential becausehe,morethan theothers(includinganthropologists andfolklorists),articulated aconceptualframework foranalyzing andintervening intheculture oforganizations.
657IwanttothankRudyAlvarez,FinnBorum,NeilBrady,S0renChristensen,PasqualeGagliardi,JaiGhorpade,DennyGioia,DickGoodman,MichaelOwenJones,KristianKreiner,ScottLever,JoanneMartin,JanMolin,JesperStandgaardPedersen,SteenScheuer,MajkenSchultz,AnnWestenholz,DvoraYanow,andmembersoftheUCLACIBERCross-CulturalColloquium fortheirencouragement,help, andinsightfulcomments. IalsowanttoacknowledgeEdSchein fortheinitialinspiration of thisworkand forhiskindwords ofencouragementalongtheway. Anearlierversion ofthispaperwaspresentedattheannualmeetingoftheAcademyofManagement,Miami,Florida,1991.
 
658AcademyofManagementReviewOctober
Sincetheestablishmentof theorganizationalcultureconstruct,someorganizationalresearchershaveappliedideasdirectlyfrom Schein(Ped-ersen,1991;Pedersen &S0rensen,1989;Phillips, 1990; Schultz,Inpress),whereasothershavechallengedhisapproach.Forexample,subcultureresearchers havedisputedSchein'sassumptionthatorganizationalcul-tures areunitary(Barley,1983;Borum &Pedersen,1992;Gregory,1983;Louis,1983;Martin &Siehl,1983;Riley,1983;VanMaanen &Barley,1985;Young,1989).Otherresearchers, notingtheapparentambivalenceandambiguityfoundinculture,havecontestedtheidea that the functionofculture is to maintain social structure(Feldman, 1991;Martin,1992;Mey-erson,1991a,1991b;Meyerson&Martin,1987).Stillothers,workingunderthe broad labelofsymbolic-interpretiveresearch,havepursuedperspec-tivesthatScheinignored.Thesymbolic-interpretivistsgenerallyfollowtraditions establishedbyBergerand Luckmann(1966)orSchutz(1970),focusingonsymbolsandsymbolicbehaviorinorganizationsandinter-pretingthesephenomenainavarietyofways(e.g.,Alvesson,1987;Alves-son &Berg,1992;Broms &Gahmberg,1983;Czarniawska-Joerges,1988,1992;Eisenberg&Riley,1988;Kreiner,1989;Pettigrew,1979;Putnam,1983;Rosen,1985;Smircich, 1983;Smircich &Morgan, 1983;Turner,1986;Wilkins,1978).However,inspiteof alltheseapproachestounderstandingorganizationalculture(foran overviewseecompendiumseditedbyFrost,Moore,Louis,Lundberg,&Martin,1985,1991; Gagliardi,1990;Jones,Moore,&Snyder, 1988;Pondy,Frost,Morgan,&Dandridge, 1983;Turner,1990),Schein'sformulationremainsoneof theonlyconceptualmodelsever offered.Althoughargumentsagainstconceptualmodelsoforganizationalculture havebeen madeonthegroundsthattheyoversimplifycomplexphenomena,such models serve animportantrole inguidingempiricalresearch andgeneratingtheory.IarguethatSchein'smodel continuestohaverelevance,but itwould bemoreusefulifitwerecombined withideas drawnfromsymbolic-interpretiveperspectives. Moreimportant,Iintroducedynamismintoorganizationalculturetheory byreformulatingSchein'soriginalmodel inprocessual terms.Fourprocessesareexam-ined:manifestation,realization,symbolization,andinterpretation.Theseprocesses aredefined andpresentedinanewmodelcalledculturaldy-namics.Twooftheprocessesincludedin theculturaldynamicsmodel arewidelyrecognized andhaveappeared intheories oforganizationbefore:Realization ispartofWeick's(1979)enactmenttheory, andinterpretationis afocalconcernofsymbolic-interpretive research.I willreviewandextendtheseideas to theculturaldynamics model.Manifestationandsymbolizationprocesses,however,arerelativenewcomers andarepro-posedheretofurtherspecifyorganizationalculturaltheory. Inintroduc-ingandexaminingtheseprocesses, myintent isto engage intheorybuildingand toinviteadditionalexplorationandinterpretation withthepotentialtoredirectempiricalresearchinorganizationalculturestudies.

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