Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
19Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Curcumin- Biological and Medicinal Properties

Curcumin- Biological and Medicinal Properties

Ratings: (0)|Views: 756 |Likes:

More info:

Published by: Dr Dushyant Kamal Dhari on Aug 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/17/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 297
 10
 Curcumin — Biological andMedicinal Properties
 Bharat B. Aggarwal, Indra D. Bhatt, Haruyo Ichikawa,Kwang Seok Ahn, Gautam Sethi, Santosh K. Sandur,Chitra Sundaram, Navindra Seeram, and Shishir Shishodia
 CONTENTS
 10.1Introduction.........................................................................................................................29810.2Chemical Composition of Turmeric...................................................................................29910.3Antioxidant Properties of Curcumin...................................................................................30310.4Molecular Targets of Curcumin..........................................................................................30310.4.1Curcumin Downregulates the Activity of EGFR and Expressionof Her2/Neu...........................................................................................................30310.4.2Curcumin Downregulates the Activation of NF-
 κ 
 B.............................................30410.4.3Curcumin Downregulates the Activation of STAT3 Pathway..............................30710.4.4Curcumin Activate Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-
 γ 
 (PPAR
 γ 
 ).................................................................................................................30810.4.5Curcumin Downregulates the Activation of AP-1 and JNK.................................30810.4.6Curcumin Suppresses the Induction of Adhesion Molecules...............................30810.4.7Curcumin Downregulates COX-2 Expression......................................................30910.4.8Curcumin Inhibits Angiogenesis...........................................................................30910.4.9Curcumin Suppresses the Expression of MMP-9 and iNOS...............................30910.4.10Curcumin Downregulates Cyclin D1 Expression.................................................31010.4.11Curcumin Inhibits Androgen Receptors and AR-Related Cofactors....................31010.4.12Curcumin Inhibits FPTase.....................................................................................31010.4.13Suppression of Egr-1 by Curcumin.......................................................................31010.4.14Suppression of MAPKs by Curcumin..................................................................31110.4.15Suppression of Protein Kinases by Curcumin......................................................31110.5Anticancer Properties of Curcumin....................................................................................31210.5.1
  In Vitro
 Studies......................................................................................................31410.5.2
  In Vivo
 Studies.......................................................................................................31610.6Curcumin and Chemosensitivity.........................................................................................31910.7Radiosensitizing Effects of Curcumin................................................................................32110.7.1Curcumin can Induce Radioprotection.................................................................32110.8Cardiovascular Diseases......................................................................................................32210.8.1Effect of Curcumin on Atherosclerosis and MI....................................................32210.8.2Curcumin Inhibits Proliferation of Vascular Smooth MuscleCells.......................................................................................................................32210.8.3Curcumin Lowers Serum Cholesterol Level.........................................................32310.8.4Curcumin Inhibits LDL Oxidation........................................................................32410.8.5Curcumin Inhibits Platelet Aggregation................................................................325
 7034_book.fm Page 297 Friday, October 20, 2006 9:32 AM
 
 298
 Turmeric: The Genus
Curcuma
 10.9Curcumin Stimulates Muscle Regeneration.......................................................................32510.10Curcumin Enhances Wound Healing..................................................................................32510.11Curcumin Suppresses Symptoms Associated with Arthritis..............................................32610.12Curcumin Reduces the Incidence of Cholesterol Gall Stone Formation...........................32610.13Curcumin Modulates MS....................................................................................................32710.14Curcumin Blocks the Replication of HIV..........................................................................32810.15Curcumin Affects Alzheimer’s Disease..............................................................................32910.16Curcumin Protects Against Cataract Formation in Lenses................................................33010.17Curcumin Protects from Drug-Induced Myocardial Toxicity............................................33110.18Curcumin Protects from Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury.....................................................33110.19Curcumin Protects from Drug-Induced Lung Injury..........................................................33210.20Curcumin Protects From Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity....................................................33310.21Curcumin Inhibits Scarring.................................................................................................33410.22Curcumin Protects from Inflammatory Bowel Disease......................................................33410.23Curcumin Enhances the Immunosuppressive Activity.......................................................33510.24Curcumin Protects Against Various Forms of Stress.........................................................33510.25Curcumin Protects Against Endotoxin Shock....................................................................33510.26Curcumin Protects Against Pancreatitis..............................................................................33510.27Curcumin Corrects Cystic Fibrosis Defects.......................................................................33610.28Curcumin Bioavailability, Pharmacodyanamics, Pharmacokinetics, andMetabolism..........................................................................................................................33610.29Clinical Experience with Curcumin....................................................................................33810.30Natural Analogs of Curcumin.............................................................................................34110.31Synthetic Analogs of Curcumin..........................................................................................34310.32Structure–Activity Relationship of Curcumin....................................................................34510.33Conclusion...........................................................................................................................347References......................................................................................................................................348
 10.1INTRODUCTION
 The turmeric (
 Curcuma longa
 ) plant, a perennial herb belonging to the ginger family, is cultivatedextensively in south and southeast tropical Asia. The rhizome of this plant is also referred to as the“root” and is the most useful part of the plant for culinary and medicinal purposes. The most activecomponent of turmeric is curcumin, which makes up 2 to 5% of the spice. The characteristic yellowcolor of turmeric is due to the curcuminoids.Curcumin is an orange–yellow crystalline powder practically insoluble in water. The structureof curcumin (C
 
21
 H
 
20
 O
 
6
 ) was first described in 1913 by Lampe and Milobedeska and shown to bediferuloylmethane (Aggarwal et al., 2003).Turmeric is used as a dietary spice, coloring agent in foods and textiles, and a treatment for awide variety of ailments (Figure 10.1). It is widely used in traditional Indian medicine to curebiliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis.Turmeric paste in slaked lime is a popular home remedy for the treatment of inflammation andwounds. For centuries, curcumin has been consumed as a dietary spice at doses up to 100 mg/day.Extensive investigation over the last five decades has indicated that curcumin reduces blood cho-lesterol (Rao et al., 1970; Patil and Srinivasan, 1971; Keshavarz, 1976; Soudamini et al., 1992;Soni and Kuttan, 1992; Hussain and Chandrasekhara, 1992; Asai and Miyazawa, 2001) preventsLDL oxidation (Ramirez-Tortosa et al., 1999; Naidu and Thippeswamy, 2002; Patro et al., 2002),inhibits platelet aggregation (Srivastava et al., 1986,1995), suppresses thrombosis (Srivastava, 1985)and myocardial infarction (MI) (Dikshit et al., 1995; Nirmala and Puvanakrishnan, 1996a,b; Ven-katesan, 1998), suppresses symptoms associated with type II diabetes (Srinivasan, 1972; Babu andSrinivasan, 1995,1997; Arun and Nalini, 2002), rheumatoid arthritis (Deodhar et al., 1980), multiple
 7034_book.fm Page 298 Friday, October 20, 2006 9:32 AM
 
 Curcumin — Biological and Medicinal Properties
 299
 sclerosis (MS) (Natarajan and Bright, 2002), and Alzheimer’s disease (Lim et al., 2001; Frautschyet al., 2001), inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication (Sui et al., 1993; Li et al.,1993; Jordan and Drew, 1996; Mazumder et al., 1997; Barthelemy, 1998), enhances wound healing(Sindhu et al., 1998; Phan et al., 2001; Shahed et al., 2001), protects from liver injury (Morikawaet al., 2002), increases bile secretion (Ramprasad and Sirsi, 1956), protects from cataract formation(Awasthi et al., 1996), and protects from pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis (Venkatesan and Chan-drakasan, 1995; Venkatesan et al., 1997; Venkatesan, 2000; Punithavathi et al., 2000), is an anti-leishmaniasis (Saleheen et al., 2002; Gomes Dde et al., 2002; Koide et al., 2002) and an antiath-erosclerotic (Huang et al., 1992; Chen and Huang, 1998). Additionally, there is extensive literaturethat suggests that curcumin has potential in the prevention and treatment of a variety of otherdiseases (Figure 10.2).
 10.2CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TURMERIC
 Curcumin was first isolated in 1815, obtained in crystalline form in 1870 (Vogel and Pelletier,1818; Daube, 1870), and identified as 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphe-nyl)-(1E,6E) or diferuloylmethane (Figure 10.3). The feruloylmethane skeleton of curcumin wassubsequently confirmed in 1910 by the initial work and synthesis by Lampe (Lampe, 1910; Lampeand Milobedzka, 1913). Curcumin is a yellow-orange powder that is insoluble in water and etherbut soluble in ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, and acetone. Curcumin has a melting point of 183
 °
 C,molecular formula of C
 
21
 H
 
20
 O
 
6
 , and molecular weight of 368.37 g/mol.Curcumin (also known as curcumin I) occurs naturally in the rhizome of 
Curcuma longa
 , whichis grown commercially and sold as turmeric, a yellow-orange dye. Turmeric contains curcuminalong with other chemical constituents known as the “curcuminoids” (Srinivasan, 1952). The major
 FIGURE 10.1
 Medicinal properties of curcumin.
Chemopreventive
Skin, liver, colon, stomach
DiabetesCardiovasculardiseases
Cholestrol, platelet aggregation
ArthritisAntiinflammatoryChemotheraputicAntioxidantAntiangiogenicMultiple sclerosisAlzheimer diseaseLung fibrosisNephrotoxicityCardiotoxicityWound healingHIV replicationCataract formationGall-stones formationInhibits vascularsmooth muscle cellproliferation
Curcumin
Inflammatorybowel diseaseImmunosuppressiveSeptic shockLiver injuryInhibits ScarringMultidrug resistanceStimulates muscleregeneration
 7034_book.fm Page 299 Friday, October 20, 2006 9:32 AM

Activity (19)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Dr P.R. Raghavan liked this
mir409 liked this
Prakash Meena liked this
sabryfahmy liked this
toantien1771990 liked this
Muhammad Assagaf liked this
tahtawy55 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->