Curcumin — Biological and Medicinal Properties
sclerosis (MS) (Natarajan and Bright, 2002), and Alzheimer’s disease (Lim et al., 2001; Frautschyet al., 2001), inhibits human immunodeﬁciency virus (HIV) replication (Sui et al., 1993; Li et al.,1993; Jordan and Drew, 1996; Mazumder et al., 1997; Barthelemy, 1998), enhances wound healing(Sindhu et al., 1998; Phan et al., 2001; Shahed et al., 2001), protects from liver injury (Morikawaet al., 2002), increases bile secretion (Ramprasad and Sirsi, 1956), protects from cataract formation(Awasthi et al., 1996), and protects from pulmonary toxicity and ﬁbrosis (Venkatesan and Chan-drakasan, 1995; Venkatesan et al., 1997; Venkatesan, 2000; Punithavathi et al., 2000), is an anti-leishmaniasis (Saleheen et al., 2002; Gomes Dde et al., 2002; Koide et al., 2002) and an antiath-erosclerotic (Huang et al., 1992; Chen and Huang, 1998). Additionally, there is extensive literaturethat suggests that curcumin has potential in the prevention and treatment of a variety of otherdiseases (Figure 10.2).
10.2CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TURMERIC
Curcumin was ﬁrst isolated in 1815, obtained in crystalline form in 1870 (Vogel and Pelletier,1818; Daube, 1870), and identiﬁed as 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphe-nyl)-(1E,6E) or diferuloylmethane (Figure 10.3). The feruloylmethane skeleton of curcumin wassubsequently conﬁrmed in 1910 by the initial work and synthesis by Lampe (Lampe, 1910; Lampeand Milobedzka, 1913). Curcumin is a yellow-orange powder that is insoluble in water and etherbut soluble in ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, and acetone. Curcumin has a melting point of 183
C,molecular formula of C
, and molecular weight of 368.37 g/mol.Curcumin (also known as curcumin I) occurs naturally in the rhizome of
, whichis grown commercially and sold as turmeric, a yellow-orange dye. Turmeric contains curcuminalong with other chemical constituents known as the “curcuminoids” (Srinivasan, 1952). The major
Medicinal properties of curcumin.
Skin, liver, colon, stomach
Cholestrol, platelet aggregation
ArthritisAntiinflammatoryChemotheraputicAntioxidantAntiangiogenicMultiple sclerosisAlzheimer diseaseLung fibrosisNephrotoxicityCardiotoxicityWound healingHIV replicationCataract formationGall-stones formationInhibits vascularsmooth muscle cellproliferation
Inflammatorybowel diseaseImmunosuppressiveSeptic shockLiver injuryInhibits ScarringMultidrug resistanceStimulates muscleregeneration
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