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Research: Its Nature, Types and Role in Development

Research: Its Nature, Types and Role in Development

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Published by sagami.g
Research: Its Nature, Types and Role in Development
What is Research?
Functions of Research
Uses of Research as a Scientific Process
Role of Research in Development
Paradigms & Methods: Quantitative & Qualitative Research
General Types of Research
Other Dichotomies of Research
Research Methods
The Research Process
Formulation of Research Framework
Choosing An Appropriate Study Design
Research Proposal
Research: Its Nature, Types and Role in Development
What is Research?
Functions of Research
Uses of Research as a Scientific Process
Role of Research in Development
Paradigms & Methods: Quantitative & Qualitative Research
General Types of Research
Other Dichotomies of Research
Research Methods
The Research Process
Formulation of Research Framework
Choosing An Appropriate Study Design
Research Proposal

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Published by: sagami.g on Aug 27, 2010
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Research: Its Nature, Types & Role in Development
What is research?
A careful, systematic study in the field of knowledge that is undertaken to discover or establish facts orprinciples (Webster, 1984).
A systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a solution to aproblem, to validate or test an existing theory (David, 2000).
a systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems.
Ultimate goal is to develop, refine, and expand a body of knowledge.
Nursing Research?
A systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession,including nursing practice, education, administration, and informatics
Clinical Nursing Research-Research designed to generate knowledge to guide nursing practice and to improve the health and qualityof life of nurses’ clients.Functions of Research:
It helps us answer questions, solve problems and make decisions.
It enables us to see and understand how and why a situation or a problemexists.
It helps us discover new things and ideas.
Functions of Research:
It allows us to validate existing theories or generate new ones.
It helps us identify and understand the causes and effects of a situation or aphenomenon.Role of Research in Improving our Quality of LifeUses of Research as a Scientific Process
Determine/ describe an existing situation (situation analysis),
Describe a population (people, objects, institutions, etc.)
Compare two conditions or groups of population,
Uses of Research as a Scientific Process
Determine existence, degree, or nature of relationship between two or more factors,
Evaluate add/or compare effectiveness of an intervention, treatment or exposure, and
Predict the value of a certain characteristicRole of Research in Development
Analyzing existing social and economic problems or conditions
For planning and designing a program/ proj./ activity intended to address the problem
Data on the background and needs of target clients of a proposed program/ proj. are needed in the prep.Of the intervention
Program managers or project implementers should continue collecting, analyzing and using relevant datato determine if, or to make sure that a project/ program is being implemented.
Project implementation should be closely monitored to check progress and quality of implementation.Paradigms & Methods: Quantitative & Qualitative Research
Scientific Method-Systematic: investigator presents logically trough a series of steps accdg. to a specified plan of action
Quantitative-Gathers through empirical evidence; rooted in objective reality and are gathered directly orindirectlyResearchNewKnowledgeNew Tools/Devices/ApproachesNew TechnologyImprovedCondition/WelfareNewSkills/Practices/Behaviors
 
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Numeric information: formal measurement analyzed with statistical procedures
Qualitative-Narrative and subjectiveQuantitative vs. Qualitative ResearchQuantitative Research
Seeks to quantify or reflect in numbers the observations on the characteristics of the population being studied.
It measures the number of respondents or objects possessing a particular characteristic.
It emphasizes precise measurement and oftentimes requires statistical analysis of data or the testing of hypotheses based on a sample of observations.Qualitative Research
It emphasizes verbal explanations of human behavior and practices in an attempt to understand how the unitsor members of the study population experience or explain their own world
 To gather information , the researcher makes use of one or a combination of the following techniques:participant observation, key informant interview, focus group discussion, direct observation, and in-depthanalysis of a single caseParadigms & Nursing Research:
It sharpens the focus on a phenomenon of interest for ;-Ultimate goals-External evidence-Reliance on human cooperation-Ethical constraints-Fallibility of discipline researchPurposes of NR:
Basic & Applied-Can be done through;
Identification
Description
Exploration
Explanation
Prediction
ControlSteps in a Quantitative ResearchPhase 1: The Conceptual Phase1. Formulating and Delimiting a Problem2. Review of Related Literature3. Undertaking Clinical Fieldwork4. Defining the Framework and DevelopingConceptual Definitions5. Formulating HypothesisPhase 2: The Design & Planning Phase6. Selecting a Research Design (overall plan)7. Developing Protocols for the Intervention8. Identifying the Population to be Studied9. Designing the Sample Plan (Subjects-sampling)10. Specifying Methods to Measure the ResearchVariable11. Developing Methods for Safeguarding HR12. Finalizing & Reviewing the Research Plan(pretesting & pilot testing)Phase 3: The Empirical Phase13. Collecting the Data14. Preparing the Data for AnalysisPhase 4: The Analytic Phase15. Analyzing the DataPhase 5: The Dissemination Phase16. Communicating the Findings The Research Process
 
Identification and Definition of a ResearchProblemStatement of ResearchProblem Theoretical/ConceptualFrameworkFormulationOperationalDefinitionof VariablesReport Preparation and InformationDisseminationHypothesisFormulationChoosing Appropriate ResearchDesignIdentification of Target Population andSamplingPreparationof ResearchInstrumentQualityControlQ Admin.,Interview, Testing&ObservationReliability Testing&ValidationData Processing(Editing, Coding, Encoding, Creation of Data Files TabulationData Analysis & InterpretationStatistical Analysis, Interpretation,Generalization)
 
DataCollection
 
General Types of Research
Descriptive Research
Correlation or Association
Experimental or intervention1. Descriptive Research
 Type of study finds answer to the questions who, what, when, where and how.
Describes a situation or a given state of affairs in terms of specified aspects or factors2. Explanatory or Correlation Research
 This type of research goes beyond description of the problem or situation.
It attempts to explain the possible factors related to a problem which have been observed in a descriptivestudy.
 This type of study answers the questions why and how?
 The research investigates relationships between factors or variables3. Intervention or Experimental Research
Evaluates the effect or outcome of a particular intervention or treatment
It studies the cause and effect relationship between certain factors on a certain phenomenon undercontrolled conditions.
Subjects of the study are randomly assigned to the experimental and to the control group and both groupsare exposed to similar conditions except for the intervention/ treatment.Other Dichotomies of Research1. Pure basic vs. Applied Research2. Exploratory vs. Explanatory Research3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Research Methods1. Experimental Method2. Survey Method3. Historical Method4. Content Analysis1. Experimental Method
 This is used to determine the effectiveness of a treatment or an intervention or the “cause and effect”relationship of a certain phenomena under controlled condition.
Subjects of the study are randomly assigned to similar conditions except for the intervention/ treatment.2. Survey Method
It obtains data to determine specific characteristics of a group.
 The purpose of a survey is to get a general picture of the characteristics of a study population at aparticular time.
 The use of the survey approach is appropriate for most descriptive and correlation studies.3. Historical Method
Used to determine the growth and development of a group, organization or institution.
 The description is based on information about some past aspects of the group, organization or institution.
Most of the data used in this method are collected from secondary sources, such as records, documents,written materials, accounts, etc.4. Content Analysis
Used when the intention of the researcher is to ascertain the quality of message or information found in adocument or in mass media.
It is used to test the level of readability of certain books
Content analysis is also used in determining authenticity of documents and in literary research The Research ProcessWhat is a Research Problem?

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