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Transcultural Nursing and Specialization

Transcultural Nursing and Specialization

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Published by sagami.g
Transcultural Nursing and Specialization
Transcultural Nursing and Specialization

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Published by: sagami.g on Aug 27, 2010
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TRANSCULTURAL NURSING
 Nursing has developed several models of care delivery to help explain relationships between the nurse and culturally diverse clients and their families. Transcultural nursingincorporates concepts found in nursing, sociology, anthropology, and psychiatry. Perhaps the best known model and theory come from Madeleine Leininger, identified as the founder of transcultural nursing theory, who began her research of transcultural nursing in the 1960’s.
 Madeleine Leininger 
A nurse scientist and anthropologist, has developed the Cultural Care Diversity andUniversality theory over the past three decades. She developed this theory in response toher growing conviction that culture dictates the way that individuals should receive care, based on the different ways that cultures meet their basic needs and respond to humaninteraction (Leininger, 1991). According to her theory "Cultural care involves thosefacets of culture that deal with individual and group health and well being, includingefforts to improve upon the human condition or to deal with illness, handicaps, or death"(Frisch & Frisch, 1998). Leininger (1991) theorized that every culture had access to someform of folk or indigenous health care system and that some, but not all, had access to a professional health care system.
She saw the urgent need for transcultural nursing in the mid 1950's. She also felt thattranscultural nursing was an essential nursing and healthcare need worldwide.
Transcultural Nursing
Was defined as "a humanistic and scientific area of formal study and practice in nursingwhich is focused upon differences and similarities among cultures with respect to humancare, health, and illness based upon the people's cultural values, beliefs, and practices,and to use this knowledge to provide cultural specific or culturally congruent nursing careto people" (Fernandez, 1997-2001). Essentially, transcultural nursing has focused onunderstanding cultures and their specific care needs and how to provide care that fits their lifeways rather than assuming professional nurses always know what is best for them.
When establishing transcultural nursing more then four decades ago, Leininger (1998)held that "Care is the heart of nursing; Care is power; Care is essential to healing (or 
 
well-being); Care is curing; and Care is (or should be) the central and dominant focus of nursing and transcultural nursing decisions and actions". Transcultural nursing promotesand upholds these ideas because human beings are born, live, work and die within aculture care context and viewpoint. To neglect cultural factors such as one's religion,family ties, and economical, political, educational and technological factors can lead tonon-caring and cultural negligence with often non-beneficial outcomes (Leininger, 1998).
Defined as a humanistic and scientific area of formal study and practice in nursing whichis focused upon differences and similarities among cultures with respect to human care,health, and illness based upon the people's cultural values, beliefs, and practices, and touse this knowledge to provide cultural specific or culturally congruent nursing care to people.
Leininger (1991) notes the main goal of transcultural nursing is to provide culturallyspecific care. But before transcultural nursing can be adequately understood, there must be a basic knowledge of key terminology such as culture, cultural values, culturallydiverse nursing care, ethnocentrism, race, and ethnography.
Definition of Terms:
1.
Culture
refers to norms and practices of a particular group that are learned andshared and guide thinking, decisions, and actions.2.
Cultural values
are the individual's desirable or preferred way of acting or knowing something that is sustained over a period of time and which governs actions or decisions.3.
Culturally diverse nursing care
is an optimal mode of health care delivery,refers to the variability of nursing approaches needed to provide culturally appropriate carethat incorporates an individual’s cultural values, beliefs, and practices including sensitivity tothe environment from which the individual comes and to which the individual may ultimatelyreturn. (Leininger, 1985).
SPECIALIZATION
In the early 1900s, Max Weber, one of the pioneers of modern sociology, designed a perfectly rational organizational form, called a bureaucracy. Among the characteristics of this

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