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Engineer Magazine

Engineer Magazine

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Published by zahrul azha

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Published by: zahrul azha on Aug 28, 2010
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KDN PP11720/1/2006 ISSN 0128-4347 VOL.31 SEPT - NOV 2006 RM10.00
   L   E   M   B   A   G   A
J    U    R   U    T    E    R   A   
MALAYSIA
BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA
LEMBAGA JURUTERA MALAYSIA
BUILDING
 
      c       o       n        t       e       n        t       s 
Volume 31 September - November 2006
   L   E   M   B   A   G   A
J    U    R   U    T    E    R   A   
MALAYSIA
5056
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5
Cover Feature
6
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2
THE INGENIEUR
BORANG 
 
Members of the Board of Engineers Malaysia(BEM) 2005/2006President
 YBhg. Dato’ Prof. Ir. Dr. Wahid bin Omar
Registrar
Ir. Dr. Mohd Johari Md. Arif 
Secretary
Ir. Dr. Judin Abdul Karim
Members of BEM
 YBhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Ir. Md Radzi Mansor YBhg. Datuk Ir. Hj. Keizrul Abdullah YBhg. Mej. Jen. Dato’ Ir. Ismail Samion YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Shanthakumar Sivasubramaniam YBhg. Datu Ir. Hubert Thian Chong Hui YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Prof. Chuah Hean TeikAr. Dr. Amer Hamzah Mohd YunusIr. Henry E ChelvanayagamIr. Dr. Shamsuddin Ab Latif Ir. Prof. Dr. Ruslan HassanIr. Mohd. Rousdin HassanIr. Prof. Dr. Hassan BasriTn Hj. Basar bin JuraimiIr. Ishak Abdul RahmanIr. Anjin Hj. AjikIr. P E Chong
Editorial BoardAdvisor
 YBhg. Dato’ Prof. Ir. Dr. Wahid bin Omar
Chairman
 YBhg Datuk Ir. Shanthakumar Sivasubramaniam
Editor
Ir. Fong Tian Yong
Members
Ir. Mustaza SalimIr. Chan Boon TeikIr. Ishak Abdul RahmanIr. Prof. Dr. K. S. KannanIr. Prof. Dr. Ruslan HassanIr. Prof. Madya Dr. Eric K H GohIr. Nitchiananthan BalasubramaniamIr. Prof. Madya Megat Johari Megat Mohd NoorIr. Prem Kumar
Executive Director
Ir. Ashari Mohd Yakub
Publication Officer
Pn. Nik Kamaliah Nik Abdul Rahman
Assistant Publication Officer
Pn. Che Asiah Mohamad Ali
Design and Production
Inforeach Communications Sdn BhdThe Ingenieur is published by the Board of Engineers Malaysia (Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia)and is distributed free of charge to registeredProfessional Engineers.The statements and opinions expressed in thispublication are those of the writers.BEM invites all registered engineers to contributearticles or send their views and comments to thefollowing address:
Publication Committee
Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia,Tingkat 17, Ibu Pejabat JKR,Jalan Sultan Salahuddin,50580 Kuala Lumpur.Tel: 03-2698 0590 Fax: 03-2692 5017E-mail: bem1@streamyx.compublication@bem.org.myWeb site: http://www.bem.org.my
Advertising/Subscriptions
Advertisement Form is on page 49
President’s MessageEditor’s Note
Recent policy issues relating to buildings, such as replacingCFO with CCC, Professional Indemnity Insurance and the “buildthen sell” concept for housing development have attracted greatinterest among related professionals especially engineers andarchitects. The Publication Committee will publish the outcomeof firm decisions on these issues in due course. Meanwhile, wewelcome any views or suggestions in this regard.In conjunction with the national effort to promote good andsanitary public toilets through the recent toilet design competition and the nationalforum cum exhibition, the two articles published here cover the international andlocal perspectives of good toilet design, trends and innovation.With regard to the ‘Engineering Nostalgia’ section, we are getting fewercontributions from readers. As this is understandable, we are consideringsupplementing this section with photographs of interesting engineering featuresand/or projects, and are looking forward to contributions to this section of the bulletin.
Ir. Fong Tian Yong
Editor 
KDN PP11720/1/2007ISSN 0128-4347 VOL. 31 SEPT-NOV 2006
4
THE INGENIEUR
Building codes are essentially sets of safety regulationsin respect of structure, fire, and health. They were originallydeveloped in response to frequently occurring hazards of structural collapse, catastrophic fires, and the spread of disease. Along with other developments, building by-lawshave been very effective in reducing markedly the probabilitiesof disaster. Closely related to the life of the community, thesematters became the responsibility of the city council ormunicipality.There are some who protest the restrictions that buildingcodes impose and argue that they are not needed. Yet, every time there is loss of lifefrom fire or collapse of scaffolding in the news, there is public outcry against thelaxity of laws or officials and a demand that something be done to prevent recurrence.Legislation to promote safety continues to be demanded and building codes willprobably be necessary for some time, despite the many difficulties encountered intheir formulation and application.Codes, by themselves, can never be made to guarantee any consistent level of safety so long as there is freedom to choose the form that the building and its partsmay take. The designer may also be concerned about the various choices that providesomewhat more than the minimum called for in the codes. This, in fact, ought to bethe normal case, the tolerable probabilities envisaged by the codes being reachedonly on occasions when the advantage to be gained by compromising safety in aparticular choice is worthwhile. Maximum freedom in design becomes possible onlywhen safety can be included and adequately treated as a design consideration.This philosophy can be associated quite closely with the present situation instructural design. It is now obvious that no practical set of restrictions can guaranteecomplete structural safety. It is also fairly clear that design codes, applied withoutthought, are inadequate. A satisfactory compromise is only obtained by the applicationof a design code in the hands of a competent professional. The design code reflectsthe best general guide that can be produced from the cumulative experience of theprofessional group which developed it. The professional consultant must be furtherconcerned with the specific design case and must introduce his own knowledge and judgment in dealing with any new or unusual features.
Dato’ Prof. Ir. Dr. Wahid bin Omar
President 
BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA

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