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Lab 1 Fluidized Bed

Lab 1 Fluidized Bed

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Published by: bedirtupak on Aug 28, 2010
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ABSTRACT\SUMMARY
This experiment is about fluidization of a bed of solid by passing a fluid, usually agas upwards through a bed of particles supported on a distributor. Fluidization or fluidizing, converts a bed of solid particles into an expanded mass that has many properties of a liquid. As a fluid is passed upward through a bed of particles, pressure lossdue to frictional resistance increases as fluid flow increases. At a point, whereby theupward drag force exerted by the fluid on the particle equal to apparent weight of  particles in the bed, fluidization occurs.The size of solid particle which can be fluidized varies greatly from less than1
µ
m to 6cm. It is generally concluded that particles distributed in sizes between 150
µ
mand 10
µ
m are the best for smooth fluidization (least formation of large bubbles). Large particles cause instability and result in slugging or massive surges. Small particles (lessthan 20
µ
m) frequently even though dry, act as if damp, forming agglomerates or fissuresin the bed, or spouting. Adding finer sized particles to a coarse bed or coarse sized particles to a bed of fines usually results in better fluidization.The upward velocity of the gas is usually between 0.15m/s and 6m/s. Thisvelocity is based upon the flow through the empty vessel as is referred to as thesuperficial velocity. As the velocity of flow increases, the particles rearrange themselvesto offer less resistance to the fluid flow and the bed will tend to expand unless it iscomposed of large particles (mean diameter > 1mm). The expansion continues until astage is reached where the drag force exerted on the particles will be sufficient to supportthe weight of the particles in the bed. The fluid/particle systems then begin to exhibitfluid like properties and it will flow under the influence of a hydrostatic head. This is the point of incipient fluidization and the gas velocity needed to achieve this is referred to asthe minimum fluidization velocity, U
mf 
.Beyond this velocity, the pressure drop across the bed will be approximatelyequal to the weight of the bed per unit area. The effective
P excludes the hydrostatic pressure drop across the bed which can be neglected in gas fluidized systems operating atatmospheric pressure. It is likely, however that this pressure drop will be exceeded just prior to fluidization with gas fluidized systems in order to overcome cohesive forces1
 
 between the particles and break down the residual packing and interlocking of particleswithin the bed.The behavior of fluidization is depends on the types of the particles composed inthe vessel. Geldart (1973) classified powders into four groups according to their fluidization properties at ambient condition. There are 4 stages of particles that are (A)aerated, (B) bubble, (C) cohesive and (D) dense. In this experiment, we are consideringwith a coarse sand which is in group B, Ballotini which is in group A and Glutinous flour which is in group C.From this experiment, we can obtain the bed expansion, bed pressure drop and theflow rate of the fluid. By the equation given in the theory, superficial gas velocity, U
mf 
and
ε
mf 
for all cases can be calculated. Then only, we plotted two graphs which are bed pressure drop against superficial gas velocity and bed expansion against superficial gasvelocity for all cases. The U
mf 
 predicted from the graph then is being compared with thecalculated one.2
 
INTRODUCTION
The upward flow of fluid through a bed of particles is a situation encountered both in nature, as with the natural movement of ground water, crude petroleum or naturalgas, through porous media, and in industrial operations such as backwashing filters, ion-exchange processes, extraction of soluble components from raw materials and for certaintypes of chemical reactor. It is well known that if the particles are loosely packed and the pressure drop due to the flow through the bed is equivalent to the weight of the bed, the phenomenon of fluidization occurs. The fluidized state occurs naturally is so-called‘quick sand’ and industrially, use is made of the high rate of solids mixing thataccompanies fluidization for various operations such as drying, coating, heat transfer andchemical reaction.This equipment is designed to allow the study of the characteristics of flowthrough both fixed and fluidized bed of solid particles. Although the majority of fixedand fluidized bed situations encountered by practicing engineers are three dimensional, inorder that students can readily observe the important phenomenon of bubbling that occursin gas-solid systems when the gas velocity is in the excess of that required for fluidization. The transparent walls allow studies to be made of bubble behavior in thegas-solid system.3

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