A C C A
博 客 ：
b l o g . 5 2 a c c a . c o m
A C C A
书 店 ：
s h o p . 5 2 a c c a . c o m
Part 1 Examination – Paper 1.3Managing PeopleDecember 2004 Answers1(a)
Teams have to develop, mature and often eventually terminate. According to Tuckman, it is possible to identify distinct stagesof development through which teams pass. There are five distinct stages.The
stage is when the members meet and decide upon the purpose of the team and how it will operate. At this stagethe team is no more than a collection of individuals, finding out about one another and about the task even though theobjectives may be unclear. This stage is wasteful and time consuming, although essential since the prospective team membersare not at this stage comfortable with each other.The second stage is
. The phrase ‘storming’ is a deliberate reference to a stage of development characterised byconflict. Previous ideas, ideals, norms, attitudes and behaviours are challenged and often rejected. There is competition forthe roles within the team. This is a constructive and often fruitful stage with trust developing. If the individuals comesuccessfully through this stage then a stronger team will result.The
stage is when the routines under which the team will operate are established. The team is settling down,members investigate ideas and test the reactions of the team as a whole and consequently, norms are established. In addition,it is at this stage that the team establishes patterns of behaviour, levels of trust and the methods by which decisions will betaken.By the time the
stage is reached, the team is now complete and able to perform to its full potential. Difficultieswith team roles, individual conflicts and problems of adjustment have been resolved.In practice, many teams reach the
stage, which has been suggested as a final and fifth stage, when the teambecomes complacent, has lost interest in the task and exists only for self preservation.The group of people who established ‘Rockers’ would by now have gone through the development stages, the scenario clearlysuggesting that each group member had settled into and fulfilled their roles with the group having reached the
stage. However, with Olivia’s departure and the recruitment of four new members – which represents a substantial expansionin numbers – the group would have been taken back to the
stage; a collection of individuals needingto resolve uncertainties and conflict.
Olivia was the
. The scenario describes a dominant, extrovert personality. Task driven to the point of passion; aforce for action, her role is central and will be missed.
Neville is the
. He provides the leadership, coordination and is good at working with others. A balanced anddisciplined person.Peter is the
, not creative but analytical in approach, examines ideas and finds errors andflaws. However, he may be tactless and aloof.Rosalind is the
. Popular, social, extrovert and relaxed, she is a useful source of new contacts butnot ideas. She needs to be used.Quentin is the
. The administrator and organiser who turns ideas into jobs and tasks. He is efficient,trustworthy but unexcitable.Suki is the
. The ‘silent’ member. Concerned with the maintenance of the team, supportive and popularwith the team but noticed only when absent.
All team members are a matter of balance. Belbin suggests that all team members have a dual role; the primary role isthat of the skill or function, usually the individual’s professional role. The secondary role is the team role based on theindividual’s preferred behaviour pattern.Olivia was the
, thus the team role which involves driving the team and ensuring that action takes place ismissing. Her departure might well have a damaging effect on the group and the success of ‘Rockers’.In addition, the scenario does not describe remaining roles, the
(the introvert, intellectually gifted and imaginativeindividual who acts as a source of ideas) and the
who pushes the team to meet targets, sees urgencyand follow through as important and enjoys details. The person who fulfils this role is not popular with the team. Theseroles were probably secondary (Belbin suggests that it is possible to have more than one team role) but suggest, alongwith Olivia’s departure and the recruitment of four new members, that roles will need to be re-addressed.
Neville will need to re-build the team, identify and fill the vacant team roles and allow the team to develop through the stagesof team development. He needs to understand that all team roles are required for a successful team in addition to the teammembers bringing their own disciplines and skills. It is possible that all will have more than one team role skill, although onewill be greater. The team role itself may change, depending on the task and the number of team members otherwise there isthe danger of team imbalance. Often the supposed benefits of teamwork do not materialise due to incompatible personalitiesor too many individuals with the same views and backgrounds. Teams can be destructive if not properly constructed.