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Final Document Dissertation Paramesh Nirmal

Final Document Dissertation Paramesh Nirmal

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Published by: Prem Nirmal on Aug 28, 2010
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Northumbria University Final Year Project 2009-2010Paramesh Nirmal07002348 1
CEIS
Flow measurement around typical carshapes using a wind tunnel
 
BENG (Honours) Mechanical Engineering
-Paramesh Nirmal28
th
March 2010
ABSTRACT
 Car designers have been testing their designs in various ways to understand the airflow around it.With the knowledge, they have been attempting to improve the vehicles aerodynamics in every waypossible. Since the early 1900s, better aerodynamics has progressed towards being the chief goal interms of car design.The aim of this project is to investigate the flow around typical car shapes using a Wind Tunnel. Theanalysis will be carried out in two dimensions, the maximum speed of the wind tunnel is 15 m/swhich accounts to around 40 km/h. A Pitot tube will be used to measure pressure and velocityaround the car shapes. The three typical car shapes that are investigated are the Saloon, Hatchbackand Fastback. The results will be analysed and also be compared with results from numerical testingdone using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).The investigation showed that the rear shape of the car causes low pressure in the rear regionleading to recirculation of air. The results also showed that the data obtained from the Pitot tube isonly reliable when measuring uniform flow in one direction.
Supervisor: Dr. Reaz Hasan
 
Northumbria University Final Year Project 2009-2010Paramesh Nirmal07002348 2
Acknowledgments
 The author would like to show gratitude to his supervisor Dr Reaz Hasan for his consistent supportand guidance throughout the study. Also thanks to Dr Roger Penlington for his assistance in the useof CFD and for his guidance with using the instruments.Appreciation is also extended to Dr Phillip Hackney for his aid towards fabricating the car shapes.Finally the author would like thank his colleagues for their encouragement all through thecompletion of this project.
 
Northumbria University Final Year Project 2009-2010Paramesh Nirmal07002348 3
List of Figures
Fig.# Description1.1
The four primary phases of Aerodynamics
1.2
Torpedo Shape Vehicle (1899)
1.3
Air-ship shape vehicle (1913)
1.4
Boat-tail Shape Vehicle (1913)
1.5
Drag Measurements of Jaray Cars (1922)
1.6
Comparison of rear-end shapes
1.7
Design phases of a car shape
1.8
The change in shapes of the Porsche car models from 1950 to 1981.
1.9
The flow around a passenger car
2.0
Wind tunnel
2.1
2-dimensional measurement in a wind tunnel
2.2
2-dimensional hatchback
2.3
Points on Hatchback
2.4
Total Pressure Readings
2.5
A limitation of the Total Head tube
2.6
Hatchback constructed in Solidworks
2.7
Fastback constructed in Solidworks
2.8
Saloon constructed in Solidworks
2.9
Static Pressures measured on Hatchback
3.0
Experimental data of Fluid velocity around Hatchback in a wind tunnel(steady)
3.1
Experimental data of Fluid velocity around Hatchback in a wind tunnel(erroneous)
3.2
Points on Hatchback (reference for fig. 3.0 and 3.1)
3.3
Total Pressure contours on FLUENT
3.4
Attempt to elevate car on a platform on CFD.
3.5
Hatchback mesh setup
3.6
Fine Mesh
3.7
Defining Boundary Conditions
3.8
Lines created on FLUENT
3.9
x-velocity contours on hatchback
4.0
Height vs Velocity (Point 3.5 on Hatchback)
4.1
Contours of Static Pressure for the hatchback on FLUENT
4.2
Height vs. Static Pressure on Hatchback
4.3
x-velocity vectors at rear end of Hatchback
4.4
Contours of Turbulent Intensity on Hatchback
4.5
Height vs. Static Pressure for Pitot tube placed in opposite directions
4.6
Turbulent Intensity contours around a saloon shape
4.7
Contours of static pressure around a saloon shape
4.8
Contours of turbulent intensity around a fastback shape
4.9
Contours of Static pressure around a fastback shape
5.0
x-velocity vectors in rear region of fastback shape

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