History of the Internet2retrieval and [other] symbiotic functions."
In August, 1962, Licklider and Welden Clark published the paper "On-Line Man Computer Communication", one of the first descriptions of a networked future.In October, 1962, Licklider was hired by Jack Ruina as Director of the newly established IPTO within DARPA, witha mandate to interconnect the United States Department of Defense's main computers at Cheyenne Mountain, thePentagon, and SAC HQ. There he formed an informal group within DARPA to further computer research. He beganby writing memos describing a distributed network to the IPTO staff, whom he called "Members and Affiliates of theIntergalactic Computer Network". As part of the information processing office's role, three network terminals hadbeen installed: one for System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, one for Project Genie at the University of California, Berkeley and one for the Compatible Time-Sharing System project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Licklider's identified need for inter-networking would be made obvious by the apparent waste of resources this caused."For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So if I was talking online withsomeone at S.D.C. and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley or M.I.T. about this, I had to get upfrom the S.D.C. terminal, go over and log into the other terminal and get in touch with them. [...] I said, it'sobvious what to do (But I don't want to do it): If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminalthat goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing. That idea is the ARPAnet."
Robert W. Taylor, co-writer with Licklider of "The Computer as a Communications Device", in aninterview with the New York Times,
Although he left the IPTO in 1964, five years before the ARPANET went live, it was his vision of universalnetworking that provided the impetus that led his successors such as Lawrence Roberts and Robert Taylor to furtherthe ARPANET development. Licklider later returned to lead the IPTO in 1973 for two years.
At the tip of the internetworking problem lay the issue of connecting separate physical networks to form one logicalnetwork. During the 1960s, Paul Baran (RAND Corporation), produced a study of surviveable networks for the USmilitary. Information transmitted across Baran's network would be divided into what he called 'message-blocks'.Independently, Donald Davies (National Physical Laboratory, UK), proposed and developed a similar network basedon what he called packet-switching, the term that would ultimately be adopted. Leonard Kleinrock (MIT) developedmathematical theory behind this technology. Packet-switching provides better bandwidth utilization and responsetimes than the traditional circuit-switching technology used for telephony, particularly on resource-limitedinterconnection links.
Packet switching is a rapid store-and-forward networking design that divides messages up into arbitrary packets,with routing decisions made per-packet. Early networks used message switched systems that required rigid routingstructures prone to single point of failure. This led Tommy Krash and Paul Baran's US Military funded research tofocus on using message-blocks to include network redundancy,
which in turn led to the widespread urban legendthat the Internet was designed to resist nuclear attack.