World Wide Web
are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, theInternet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. Itis a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is oneof the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources,linked by hyperlinks and URLs.
, when referring to the entire global system of IP networks, has traditionally been treated as aproper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the media and popular culture a trend has developed to regardit as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet", without capitalization.The Internet is also often simply referred to as
. In many technical illustrations when the precise location orinterrelation of Internet resources is not important, the Internet is often referred as the
, and literally depicted assuch.
The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPAor DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.
ARPA created the Information ProcessingTechnology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program,which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. The IPTO's purpose was to find ways toaddress the US Military's concern about survivability of their communications networks, andas a first stepinterconnect their computers at the Pentagon, Cheyenne Mountain, and SAC HQ. J. C. R. Licklider, a promoter of universal networking, was selected to head the IPTO. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory atHarvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on acommittee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a VicePresident at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first publicdemonstration of time-sharing.
Professor Leonard Kleinrock with one of the firstARPANET Interface Message Processors atUCLA
At the IPTO, Licklider's successor Ivan Sutherland in 1965 gotLawrence Roberts to start a project to make a network, and Robertsbased the technology on the work of Paul Baran,
who had written anexhaustive study for the United States Air Force that recommendedpacket switching (opposed to circuit switching) to achieve betternetwork robustness and disaster survivability. Roberts had worked atthe MIT Lincoln Laboratory originally established to work on thedesign of the SAGE system. UCLA professor Leonard Kleinrock hadprovided the theoretical foundations for packet networks in 1962, andlater, in the 1970s, for hierarchical routing, concepts which have beenthe underpinning of the development towards today's Internet.Sutherland's successor Robert Taylor convinced Roberts to build on hisearly packet switching successes and come and be the IPTO Chief Scientist. Once there, Roberts prepared a report called ResourceSharing Computer Networks which was approved by Taylor in June1968 and laid the foundation for the launch of the working ARPANETthe following year.After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected betweenKleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas