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Introduction to the Psycho Dynamic Approach :- Personality, Defences and Transference

Introduction to the Psycho Dynamic Approach :- Personality, Defences and Transference

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Published by Peter Creagh
A brief Introduction to some of the main concepts of the psychodynamic approach and its application to therapy. It looks at Freuds model, personality, Erikson's 8 Stage Model and Defences and Transference
A brief Introduction to some of the main concepts of the psychodynamic approach and its application to therapy. It looks at Freuds model, personality, Erikson's 8 Stage Model and Defences and Transference

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Published by: Peter Creagh on Aug 29, 2010
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06/07/2013

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Counselling Theory and Practice:-
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES TO HELPING
Heartsease Training, Shifnal Shropshire email : -
petercreagh43@virginmedia.com
 © 2010 - Peter Creagh, Trainer, Supervisor and BACP Registered Counsellor UKRC
1
INTRODUCTION TO THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH
PERSONALITY
AND THE ‘AS IF’ RELATIONSHIP
INTRODUCTION
Psychodynamic has its meaning in the root word
‘ Psyche’ 
- a person’s unconsciouspart. In a less secular world its real meaning is
‘ soul 
.There are many branches of thePsychodynamic Approach but all are rooted in the work began by Freud. There aremany branches of Psychodynamic Counselling but four are very significant, Freudian ,Jungian , Adlerian and Kleinian , the latter of these gives rise to Object RelationsTherapy.Although modern psychology, and particularly the concept of personality types and traits,lays less emphasis on the psychodynamic approach, all other approaches take this as astarting point and either challenge the psychodynamic Approach or use it as a staringpoint in the development of personality.All psychodynamic approaches share some basic concepts and ideas. The mostimportant of these are as follows :
* The assumption that experiences in childhood affect us in life.* People
‘ put things off ‘ 
and unconsciously suppress things until theyhave the time and that we all have psychological defences.* Other ideas can be found in the literature concerning PsychodynamicTheory
This brief note will attempt to sketch out some of these ideas and how they affect /influence the development of personality and then explore two important concepts usedby this approach in this approach in therapy. But first let us explore the concept of theconscious and particularly Freud’s model.
 
Counselling Theory and Practice:-
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES TO HELPING
Heartsease Training, Shifnal Shropshire email : -
petercreagh43@virginmedia.com
 © 2010 - Peter Creagh, Trainer, Supervisor and BACP Registered Counsellor UKRC
2
The Concept of the Conscious
Freud outlined the following ideas on our conscious/ unconscious being
Repression
CONSCIOUS
deals with InnerExcitations and External World
PRE - CONSCIOUS
we canreadily move between this andconsciousness
SUB - CONSCIOUS
  / 
UNCONSCIOUS
 Repressed anddifficult to bring into theconsciousness. Dreams caninterpret sub-conscious. This isparticularly true of the JungianApproachFreud then outlined a schematic diagram which dealt with the inner workings of thesimple model above. This led to concepts such as
ID - EGO and SUPER EGO
and the
Dynamic 
 
balance required between all three. This is often referred to as the structure ofmental processes.Carl Jung’s approach and model is much more complex and allows or posits the idea of acollective nature to the unconscious. In addition most modern PersonalityTypologies/Indicators ( e.g. Myers Briggs or Keirsey) are influenced and rooted inJungian Psychology and its approach to personality. This allows for ‘indicators’ likeExtraversion/Introversion; Intuition/Sensing; Thinking/Feeling and Perception/Judging.Melanie Klein posits the idea of ‘Objects’ which are repressed into our deep ‘psyche’ andpreserved ( like a giant psychological freezer). These objects affect all our relating, bothintra and inter-personal , throughout our life and heavily influence our personality. Thishas led to a ‘school’ based on Object Relations Theory.Let us return the concept of the Dynamic Balance between the Ego-Super Ego and theId.
 
Counselling Theory and Practice:-
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES TO HELPING
Heartsease Training, Shifnal Shropshire email : -
petercreagh43@virginmedia.com
 © 2010 - Peter Creagh, Trainer, Supervisor and BACP Registered Counsellor UKRC
3
The Structure of Mental Processes and its Three Components or Agents
 
ID The
it’ or Child 
.
The Id is like a child, dominated by the
pleasure principle 
. It is our reservoir of primitiveinstincts, impulses and urges, Freud suggested that it was dominated by two core drive :
Love V HateLife V DeathSex V Aggression
The ID is irrational and demanding
It wasn’t me It seemed to overpower me ‘ ‘It just happened’ etc.
EGO
The I 
 
This is our ADULT part . It is rational and operates in the CONSCIOUS part of our self. Itmakes decisions based on reality and has the task of filtering and testing demands andmessages from the ID and SUPER EGO. It has an overall balancing task to perform.
I don’t know what to do I need to think’ 
SUPER _ EGO Over/Above I
 This is the
PARENT 
, the conscience, where rules, taboos, shoulds, should not’s, oughtsand ought not’s rule. These are stored away for reference. The attitudes we store awayare mainly internalised from parents or other significant adult figures.Both the ID and Super-Ego are mainly rooted in the sub-conscious/ Unconscious . Therole of the EGO is to try to balance the (often) conflicting demands of the ID and SUPEREGO

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