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ClassicalMechanics-SB11-2005

ClassicalMechanics-SB11-2005

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Published by: jamesbondrus on Aug 29, 2010
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GRE study sheet Steven Byrnes
1. Classical Mechanics - 20%
(such as kinematics, Newton’s laws, work and energy, oscillatory motion, rotational motionabout a fixed axis, dynamics of systems of particles, central forces and celestial mechanics,three-dimensional particle dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, noninertialreference frames, elementary topics in fluid dynamics)
v
in terms of 
x
in uniform acceleration.
v
2
=
v
20
+ 2
a
(
x
x
0
)
Lagrangian. Let
=kinetic energy,
=potential energy.
L
=
L
(
q,
˙
q,t
) =
Euler-Lagrange equations of motion.
ddt
∂L∂ 
˙
q
=
∂L∂q
Action. Pick the path with the correct endpoints that minimizes
=
 
t
1
t
0
L
(
q
(
t
)
,
˙
q
(
t
)
,t
)
dt
Conjugate momentum.
 p
=
∂L∂ 
˙
q
Hamiltonian.
=
p
˙
q
L
=
+
Hamiltonian equations of motion.˙
q
=
∂H ∂p
˙
 p
=
∂H ∂q
Bernoulli’s Equation for fluid flow. (Assume incompressible, nonviscous, laminar flow;this equation holds along flowlines, or if the flow is irrotational, it holds everywhere.)Take
g
as positive.
 p
+
ρgy
+12
ρv
2
= constant1
 
GRE study sheet Steven Byrnes
2. E&M - 18%
(such as electrostatics, currents and DC circuits, magnetic fields in free space, Lorentz force,induction, Maxwell’s equations and their applications, electromagnetic waves, AC circuits,magnetic and electric fields in matter)
ε
and
µ
(names,
 
and
 D
,
 
and
 B
,
χ
e
,
χ
m
,
n
,
c
).
ε
= “permittivity”
µ
= “permeability”
 D
=
ε  
=1
µ Bε
=
ε
0
(1 +
χ
e
) (
χ
e
= “electric susceptibility”)
µ
=
µ
0
(1 +
χ
m
) (
χ
m
= “magnetic susceptibility”)
n
=
 
εµε
0
µ
0
=
cc
eff 
c
=1
ε
0
µ
0
Typical values of 
ε
,
µ
.
Permittivity:
ε > ε
0
almost always, with
χ
e
>
0.
Diamagnetics:
µ < µ
0
,
χ
m
<
0. No unpaired electrons. Field is reduced by Lenz’slaw acting on electron orbitals.
Paramagnetics:
µ > µ
0
,
χ
m
>
0. Has some unpaired electrons, which align withand increase the magnetic field.
Ferromagnetics:
µ >> µ
0
(although of course not linear). Unpaired electrons,domains, and such and such.How to remember dia versus para: “In a diamagnet, the magnetic field dies.”
Maxwell’s equations.Gauss’s Law:
 
·
 D
=
ρ
free
;
 
∂V 
 D
·
ndA
=
Q
enclosed
No monopoles:
 
·
 B
= 0;
 
∂V 
 B
·
ndA
= 0Faraday’s Law:
 
×
 
=
∂  B∂t
;
 
∂S 
 
·
d 
=
ddt B
flux through
Amp`ere’s Law (modified):
 
×
 
=
 
+
∂  D∂t
;
 
∂S 
 
·
d 
=
through
+
ddtD
flux through
2
 
GRE study sheet Steven Byrnes
Induced voltage from Faraday’s Law. Φ =flux of magnetic field through coil,
=numberof turns. Sign is determined by Lenz’s Law.
=
d
Φ
dt
Coulomb’s Law.
=14
πε
0
q
1
q
2
r
2
Biot-Savart Law.
d B
=
µ
0
4
π Id L
×
ˆ
rr
2
Magnetic field on axis of a circle of current.
µ
=
µ
0
2
r
2
(
r
2
+
z
2
)
3
/
2
µ
=
µ
0
2
r,
at center of loop
Magnetic field from infinite straight wire. Direction of 
 B
from right-hand rule.
B
=
µ
0
2
πR
Force on a wire.
=
I d 
×
 B
Boundary conditions for
 
,
 D
,
 
,
 B
in macroscopic media. In absence of surface cur-rents and surface charge, the normal components of 
 D
and
 B
are continuous, and thetangential components of 
 
and
 
are continuous.
Capacitor – capacitance and energy.
Q
=
C
=12
C
2
Capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor.
=
εAd
3

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