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Ghazali - Ihya Ulum Al Deen v1

Ghazali - Ihya Ulum Al Deen v1

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Published by Qazim Ali Sumar

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Published by: Qazim Ali Sumar on Aug 29, 2010
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11/29/2013

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REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
نيدلاموعءحإ
Written by Imam GhazzaliTranslated by Fazl-ul-Karim
VOLUME I: THE BOOK OF WORSHIP
 About the Book 
The book is the English version of Imam Ghazzali's
 Ihya Ulum-ud-Din
. It deals with worship anddivine service.Imam Abu-Hamid al-Ghazzali is unquestionably the greatest theologian of Islam and one of itsnoblest and most original thinkers. He was born in 1058 A.D. at Tu s, where he died in 1111. Hereproduced in his religious experience all the spiritual phases developed by Islam.Starting his religious life as orthodox, Al-Ghazzali soon turned Sufi, and when still under twenty hehad broken with all the past. In 1091 he was appointed lecturer at the Nizamiyah in Baghdad, wherehe became a sceptic. Four year later he returned to Sufism after a terrific spiritual struggle that lefthim a physical wreck. Intellectualism had failed him. As a dervish he roamed from place to placeenjoying peace of soul and acquiescence of mind. After about twelve years of retirement in various places, including two years of retreat in Syria and a holy pilgrimage, he returned to Baghdad to preach and teach. There he composed his masterpiece lyha Ulum-id-Din (the revivification of thesciences of religion).The mysticism of this work vitalized the law its orthodoxy leavened the doctrine of Islam. In it andsuch other works of his as Fatihat-al-Ulum, Tahafut of Falasifah, Iqtisad fi-al-Itiqad, orthodoxspeculation reached its culminating point.
CONTENTS
 Preface Preface of Imam GazzaliChapter 1: The Acquisition of Knowledge
Excellence of LearningPraiseworthy and blameworthy learningsFour Imams
 
Meanings of some words now changedManners to be observed by teachers and studentsSigns of the learned of the Hereafter Intellect and its noble nature
Chapter 2: The Foundations of Belief 
Proof of belief Attributes and actions of GodRules of articles of belief 
Chapter 3: The Mysteries of Cleanliness
Purification from impuritiesPurification of body and mindCleansing the external bodily growths
Chapter 4: Secrets of prayer 
Stories of prayer of God fearing menMerits of jumma prayer Optional prayers
Chapter 5: Secrets of Zakat and Charity
Some subtle rules of zakatMerits of optional charity
Chapter 6: Secrets of Fasting 
Optional fasts and its rules
Chapter 7: Secrets of the Pilgrimage
Ten secret things in hajj
Chapter 8: The Excellence of the Quran
External and internal rules of recitingIndividual interpretation
Chapter 9: Zikr and Invocations
Rules of invocationsInvocations of sages
Chapter 10: Actions after Division of Time
Merits of night prayer 
PREFACE
Through the unbounded grace of the Almighty God and blessings of the greatest Apostle of God,the English version of the Book of worship of the world renowned Ihyaul Ulum (Revival of religious learning) of Imam Ghazzali, the greatest thinker of the world of Islam, the Proof of Islam,the famous Sufi and devout, has now been published in full. This book Ihya is a sea of knowledge
 
full of reasons and arguments, full of Quranic verses, traditions of the Holy Prophet and of thecompanions and the famous saints of early ages. Each subject was supported by the Quran,traditions and sayings of the learned sages and wise men and established by reasons and arguments.As the great Imam belonged originally to the Shafeyi Sunni sect, some of the religious doctrineswill be found in line with that sect, but nevertheless its importance is very great. In his advancedage, the Imam was not a blind follower of sects but followed his independent thinking and as suchindirectly created a sect of his own. As the world is advancing with ever new ideas and scientificdiscoveries, so also this work is full of novel and great ideas and scientific discoveries and therebythe Imam revived truly the religious sciences and gave them an impetus never given by his predecessors in such a manner. He saved Islam from the currents and cross currents of devilishthoughts and pagan ideas that imperceptibly entered into Islam and clearly showed their fallaciesand misconceptions. For this reason, he was given the title of Hujjatul Islam or the Proof of Islam.His thoughts prevailed upon those savants who came after him. Had not the Almighty blessed himwith the necklace of reason and intellect, the true belief of Islam would have been carried away bythe strong current of irreligious and misguided thoughts.True it is that there are many weak traditions in this book, bu t at the same time it should beremembered that the authors of six authentic traditional books specially Bukhari and Muslimselected some few thousand traditions as most of them were not proved to have been founded bytrustworthy narrators from the Holy Prophet down to the narrator or did not meet with all the ruleslaid down for an authentic tradition. For want of proof, many guilty persons are acquitted. For that,it cannot be said that all acquitted persons are innocent. So in this perspective, the traditions in theIhya should be regarded. Had Imam Ghazzali not found them trustworthy, he would not haveincorporated them in his book.The present translation is an attempt to bring out a complete translation of Ihya in English in four Books. The first book deals with worship and divine service, the second book with worldly usages,the third book with destructive evils and the fourth book with constructive virtues. Ihya in originalis a book in Arabic comprising four parts and its abridged addition in Persian was termed by theauthor himself as 'Kimiyae Sa'adat' or the Touchstone of fortune. Unnecessary arguments of different sects prevalent nearly one thousand years ago, some matters not needed at the present timeand some sayings of some sages of less reputation have been omitted in the present English version.The book has been, however, translated into Bengali in full by the author himself without omission.Imam Ghazzali was born in 450 A.H. (1058 A.D.) in the village Taberan in the district of Taus inPersia and his name is Abu Hamid Muhammad. His title is Hujjatul Islam or Proof of Islam and hisdynastic title is Ghazzali. His father was not a famous person but his grand father was one of theleading men of that age. His father died while he was young leaving him under the care of hismother and grand father. Ghazzal is said to be the name of a village in the district of Taus in the province of Khorasan in Persia. According to Maulana Shibli Nomani, his ancestors had the business of weaving.(Ghazzal) and therefore he retained his family title Ghazzali (weaver).
 Education:
At the time of the death of Ghazzali's -father, he entrusted the education of his two sonsMuhammad and Ahmad to one of his trusted friends. The latter imparted to them primary educationand then sent them to a private Maktab. The boys within a short time committed the whole Quran tomemory and after that began to learn Arabic.They were then admitted in a free Madrasa. After sometime, Imam Ghazzali left his native villagefor higher education for Zarzan and began to study under a great earned man Imam Abu Nasr Ismail. He used to take notes of his lectures but in a certain journey he was robbed of these notes bysome dacoits along with his other belongings. He took courage, went to the chief of the robbers and begged of the notes only to be returned to him. It was returned to him at his earnest entreaties.

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