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1359183

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Antediluvian CitiesAuthor(s): William W. HalloSource:
Journal of Cuneiform Studies,
Vol. 23, No. 3 (1971), pp. 57-67Published by:
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Accessed: 29/08/2010 09:29
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To thememoryofFerrisJStephens(1893-1969)ANTEDILUVIANCITIESWILLIAMW. HALLOYaleUniversityNewHaven,When1the divine Seven arepresentedto Irraashis irresistibleweapons,theyurgehimintobattleinthefollowingwords:Arise, getup!Areyou perhapsgoingtodwellinthecitylike aparalyzedoldman?Areyougoingto dwellin the house likeafeeblebaby?Are weto eatwomen'sbreadlike one who willnot take thefield?Areweto fear andtremble asif wedidnotknowbattle?Takingto thefield ofmanhoodislikeaholiday!Thecity-dweller,thoughhe beaprince,cannevereatenoughHeisdespisedandslanderedinthetalkofhisownpeopleHow ishetomatchhisstrengthwithhim whotakesthefield?Lettheprowessofthecity-dwellerbe eversoenormous-How ishe tooverpowerthe onewho takesthefield?Thefinestcityfood cannotcomparewithfieldrationsThe sweestestlightbeer cannotcomparewithwaterfromthegoatskinThepalace(erectedon)ahighterracecannotcomparewiththe[warrio]r'spalletWarlikeIrra,take thefield,brandishyourweapons.2Withtheseresounding phrases,arelativelylateBabylonianpoetsilhouetted the contrastbetween
1.Presentedto the 180thmeetingoftheAmericanOrientalSociety,Baltimore,Maryland,April 14,1970for thesymposiumon "AsianCitiesinHistory."2. TabletIlines46-60;translationmine.For thelatest editionofthetext,seenow L.Cagni, L'EpopeadiErra(=StudiaSemitici34, Rome,1969).
Connecticutthedebilitatingsecurityofthecityandthemanlychallengeof theopenfield.I am not concernedwith hisparticularschemeofvalues-thoughitisalmostuniqueincuneiform literature3-butwiththe contrast betweentown andcountrywhichisstressedinthe native sources from theverybeginning.It isthe consciousnessof thiscontrast,asenshrinedinthe lexical andliteraryevidence,which entitlesus toregardthecityasaphenomenologicalrealityforthe ancientMeso-potamians,andtostudyitas such.Inmybriefremarkshere thismorning,Iamgoingto drawonthisinternalevidence,leavingit toother occa-sionsorotherinvestigatorstoemploythemanyalternativeand oftennewerapproachesbywhichthenatureandoriginsof urbanism canvalidlybestudiedinthe Ancient NearEast.For some oftheinnumerable omissionsinmypresentation,Iwillsimplyreferinterested readerstothemanyauthoritativesurveysofrecentvin-tage.Imay singleout here(inchronologicalorder):R. M. Adams andCarlKraeling,eds.,CityInvincible: aSymposiumonurbanization andculturaldevelopmentinthe AncientNearEast(Chicago,UniversityofChicagoPress,1960);A.J.Jawad,The AdventoftheEraofTownshipsinNorthernMesopotamia(Leiden, Brill,1965);RobertM.Adams,TheEvolutionofUrbanSo-ciety:Early MesopotamiaandPrehispanicMexico(Chicago, Aldine,1966,ix+191pp.);PaulLampl,CitiesandPlanninginthe Near East(NewYork,George Braziller, 1968,128pp.);IraM.Lapidus,ed.,MfiddleEastern Cities:aSymposium(Berkeley, UniversityofCaliforniaPress, 1970,
3. Cf. A. L.Oppenheim,AncientMesopotamia(1964)110f.andnow alsoapudIra M.Lapidus,ed.,MiddleEasternCities(1970)7 on thegeneralabsence of an anti-urbanbiasinMesopotamia.57
 
JOURNALOFCUNEIFORMITUDIES,VOL. 23(1970)225pp.) especiallythe contributionsbyOppen-heimand Adams.4Tobegin,then,with the lexicalevidence,it isworthnotingthattheconcept"city"isexpressedbyasingletermthroughoutvirtuallyallthelonghistoryofcuneiform;u ruinSumerian,dluinAkkadian andhappirasinHittite.5True,adozen ostensiblesynonymsfortheAkkadiantermareprovided bythe canonicalsynonymlist.6But with thepossible exceptionofmahdzu(cf.Aramaicmdhoza)7thesenever occurinconnectedcontextsinthe senseof"city".Some are learnedloan-wordsfromtechnicalSumeriantermsforfoundation(kiz;ru;cf. alsodurussu8)orborder(kisurru);othersaretermsfor"herd"or"pas-ture" thatincontext occurmostlyasantitheti-callypairedwithcity(uru,nawu,nammassu);oneissimplythe wordfortheinhabitedworld(dadme),explainedmoreaccuratelyas"(all)thelands"oras "sum-totalof allcities" elsewhereinthesame source(lines191 and204respectively).The rest arerareandprobablyforeignequivalentswith which thesynonymlists aretypicallyfilledout(addsu,qunnabru, silaqqu).AsforSumerian,thesinglelexicallyattestedsynonymforu ruistir,9and even this wordfor"forest"is atbest restoredinaHittitevocabulary-agenrenotalwaysnotedforitsaccuracy.10Thisunanimityofdesignationincuneiform4. Cf.alsoD.Oates,Studies in theAncientHistoryofNorthernIraq(London,OxfordUniversityPress,1968)andthe studiesofindividualMesopotamiancities suchasBabylon(Unger,vanderMeer, Moran)orAssur(Andrae,Frankena,vanDriel)onthebasis of the liter-aryorarchaeologicalremains orboth.
5.Cf.H.Hoffner,AnEnglish-Hittite Glossary(=RHA25,1967)30.Originally,the wordmeant "market"accordingto J.Friedrich,HethitischesWorterbuch(1952)55.6.Anne DraffkornKilmer,"Thefirst tablet of 'mal-ku=sarru',"JAOS83(1963)428,lines 193-204.7. Onmahdzu cf. now indetail E.Y.Kutscher,Leshonenu34(1969-70)6-18(inHebrew)andM. C.Astour,"Ma'hadu,theharbor ofUgarit,"JESHO13(1970)113-127.8.The factthatbothkifruanddurussuareequatedwithalumand thatki-ur=both kiuru anddurussumakesithighly probablethatkifruIandIII invonSoden,AHw496,should beidentified.9. MSL 3:87:5'.10. Cf.Hoffner,JAOS 87(1967)300ff.andnow alsoOttenand vonSoden,Dasakkadisch-hethitischeVoka-bular.. .(1968).Ifcorrectlyrestored andenteredhere,thepassage may goback tosome suchmetaphoric usageasis illustratedintheunpublishedproverbYBC9871:-galtir-ra/lugalur-mah-e/dNi n--
contrastswith thesituationinotherAncient NearEasternlanguages, e.g.inHebrew where'Tr,mdahb,qeret,andqiryd,as well asthe laterkdrak,mdtd(fromtheAkkadian)andpolls(fromtheGreek)competefortherole." Itcontrasts evenmoreconspicuouslywith thesituation,incunei-formitself,asregardstheantonymsof u r uanddlu,whicharelegion.I can do no moreherethan to sumupthe evidence.InliterarySumerian,thecontrast"town andcountry"iscommonlyexpressedbythepairuruand a-dam,literally"townandpas-ture";when usedinanadditivesense,thepairimpliesthetotalityofhumansettlement.12Anexpandedversionofthisclicheoccursinthephrase"town,pasture,andencampments"(urua-dammas-ganaor urumas-ganaa-dam).13Here theAkka-dianloan-word mas-ganareflectsSar-gonicadministrativeterminologywhere "townandencampment"(mas-ga-na)wereemployedasacontrastingpair,14ausagestill attestedaslateastheAmarna letters.15Whileone canonlyspeculateabout theetymol-ogyofa-dam,otherSumerianantonymsforthecityputtransparentstresson thehydraulicbasis ofthecultivatedcountryside.Incontrasttothecity,it is"thatwhichisfructifiedwithwater" (a-ri-a,-ri-a);itis "themoistenedground"(-duru
)16
or the"irrigationdistrict"(a-gar,literallyper-hapsthe "waterpocket").Most oftheseterms
galsa-si-u
-gal/K
A
L.u .u
-ei.e.: Thepalaceisaforest/Theking,alion,/The goddessof thepalace(Nin-egal)agreatnet/which....However,e-g a1heremayhavethe actualsense of"royalbivouac" as in C.Wilcke,Lugalbandaepos(1969)lines291and322.Notethat theequation
TIR=
subtuminthe samevocabularyhasapossibleparallelinAntagalIII(CT18:34 a9).InGilgamesXI95(and79?),E.GALisused to describethe ark.11.Bycontrast,BiblicalHebrewhasremarkablyfewsynonymsfor thecountryside;cf.M.Haran,JBL80(1961)49f. forsomeofthem(haser,migras,ah?uza).12. W. H.Ph.R6mer,SKIZ 61:112andadd nowUET8:86:51 andperhapsvanDijk,JCS 19(1965)8:139.Cf.alsoKramer,FTS 162ii12and the names of Rim-Sin's25thand30thyears.13.Cf. A.Falkenstein,SGL1(1959)41.14.Ibid.,note36,quotingI.J.Gelb,MAD3:269 addeSarzec,DCIIp.lvii(=SAKI170b),asteletenta-tively assignedtoRimusbyH.Hirsch,AfO20(1963)33note372.15.Knudtzon,EA306:30,citedCADA/1:381d.16. Cf. D.0.Edzard,ZA54(1961)262f.58

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