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Chapter 7

# Chapter 7

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04/03/2011

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Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008Chapter 7: Electricity Page 1 of 8
CHAPTER 7:ELECTRICITY
7.1

Electric Fields and Charge Flow
7.1.1

Charge

There are two types of charges:

Positive charge

Negative charge

Like charges
repel
whereas opposite charges
attract
.
7.1.2

Static electricity

Stationary electric charges are known as
static electricity

Electrostatics
is the study of static electricity
7.1.3

Electric fields

An
electric field
is the region in which an
electric charge
experiences a force
Positive charge Negative chargeTwo opposite charges Two like chargesTwo non-uniform fields Two uniform fields

Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008Chapter 7: Electricity Page 2 of 8
7.1.4

Activity to observe the pattern of electric fields

When the power supply is turned on, the talcum powder will map the electrical fieldlines

Sesame oil is used because it conducts electricity only at extremely high potentialdifference

The density of the field lines represent the intensity of the electric field
7.1.5

Ping pong ball coated with conducting material

A ping pong ball coated with metallic point is placed centrally between two metallic plates connected to a very high voltage source.

The ball is suspended with nylon string which is an electrical insulator.

When the power supply is turned on, the ball will not move as it is initially
neutral
.The charges on both sides neutralize each other.

When the ball is pushed to one of the plates, the ball will
oscillate
between the platesuntil the power supply is turned off.The frequency of oscillation increases if:

Potential difference of voltage source is increased.

The metallic plates are closer.

Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008Chapter 7: Electricity Page 3 of 8
7.1.6

Flame of a candle

A candle is placed centrally between two metallic plates connected to a high voltage power source.

The candle flame splits into two opposite directions and is biased towards thenegative plate.

This is because negative ions are lighter and move more quickly than the positiveions. Negative ions are attracted towards the positive plate whereas the positive ionsare attracted towards the negative plate.
7.1.7

Lightning formation

During cloud formation, the friction of movement creates a lot of excess charge. Thisinduced positive charges on the objects below it.

If the forces of attraction are strong enough, the negative charges in the clouds will beattracted towards the positive charges of the objects, resulting in lightning.