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Internet Protocol Suite

Internet Protocol Suite

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Published by: ivaylo on Aug 30, 2010
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Internet Protocol Suite1
Internet Protocol Suite
The
Internet Protocol Suite
is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks.It is commonly also known as
TCP/IP
, named from two of the most important protocols in it: the TransmissionControl Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in thisstandard. Modern IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960sand 1970s, namely the Internet and local area networks, which emerged during the 1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, is constructed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data. In particular, the layers define the operational scope of the protocolswithin.Often a component of a layer provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols and may be using servicesfrom the lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lowerlayer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted.The TCP/IP model consists of four layers (RFC 1122).
[1]
 
[2]
From lowest to highest, these are the Link Layer, theInternet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application Layer.
History
The Internet Protocol Suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency (DARPA) in the early 1970s. After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA startedwork on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA InformationProcessing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packetnetworks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across both. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, thedeveloper of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work onopen-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET.By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences betweennetwork protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and, instead of the network beingresponsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmerman andLouis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design.The design of the network included the recognition that it should provide only the functions of efficientlytransmitting and routing traffic between end nodes and that all other intelligence should be located at the edge of thenetwork, in the end nodes. Using a simple design, it became possible to connect almost any network to theARPANET, irrespective of their local characteristics, thereby solving Kahn's initial problem. One popular expressionis that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn's work, will run over "
two tin cans and a string.
"A computer called a
router 
(a name changed from
gateway
to avoid confusion with other types of 
gateway
s) isprovided with an interface to each network, and forwards packets back and forth between them. Requirements forrouters are defined in (Request for Comments 1812).
[3]
The idea was worked out in more detailed form by Cerf's networking research group at Stanford in the 1973
 – 
74period, resulting in the first TCP specification.(Request for Comments 675)
[4]
(The early networking work at XeroxPARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which existed around the same period of time, was also a significant technical influence; people moved between the two.)DARPA then contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, and the University College London todevelop operational versions of the protocol on different hardware platforms. Four versions were developed: TCPv1, TCP v2, a split into TCP v3 and IP v3 in the spring of 1978, and then stability with TCP/IP v4
 —
the standardprotocol still in use on the Internet today.
 
Internet Protocol Suite2In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University CollegeLondon (UCL). In November, 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, UK, andNorway. Several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centres between 1978 and 1983. Themigration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP was officially completed on January 1, 1983, when the new protocols werepermanently activated.
[5]
In March 1982, the US Department of Defense declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computernetworking.
[6]
In 1985, the Internet Architecture Board held a three day workshop on TCP/IP for the computerindustry, attended by 250 vendor representatives, promoting the protocol and leading to its increasing commercialuse.
Layers in the Internet Protocol Suite
The concept of layers
The TCP/IP suite uses encapsulation to provide abstraction of protocols and services. Such encapsulation usually isaligned with the division of the protocol suite into layers of general functionality. In general, an application (thehighest level of the model) uses a set of protocols to send its data down the layers, being further encapsulated at eachlevel.This may be illustrated by an example network scenario, in which two Internet host computers communicate acrosslocal network boundaries constituted by their internetworking gateways (routers).The functional groups of protocols and methods are the Application Layer, the Transport Layer, the Internet Layer,and the Link Layer (RFC 1122). This model was not intended to be a rigid reference model into which new protocolshave to fit in order to be accepted as a standard.The following table provides some examples of the protocols grouped in their respective layers.
 
Internet Protocol Suite3
Application
DNS, TFTP, TLS/SSL, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP, POP3, SIP, SMTP, SMPP, SNMP, SSH, Telnet, Echo, RTP,PNRP, rlogin, ENRPRouting protocols like BGP and RIP which run over TCP/UDP, may also be considered part of the Internet Layer.
Transport
TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP, RSVP
Internet
IP (IPv4, IPv6), ICMP, IGMP, and ICMPv6OSPF for IPv4 was initially considered IP layer protocol since it runs per IP-subnet, but has been placed on the Link since RFC 2740.
Link
ARP, RARP, OSPF (IPv4/IPv6), IS-IS, NDP
Layer names and number of layers in the literature
The following table shows the layer names and the number of layers of networking models presented in RFCs andtextbooks in widespread use in today's university computer networking courses.
RFC 1122[7]TanenbaumCiscoAcademy[8]Kurose[9]Forouzan[10]Comer[11]Kozierok[12]Stallings[13]Arpanet ReferenceModel 1982 (RFC 871)
 Four layers
[14]
 Four layers
 [15]
 Four layersFive layersFour+one layersFive layersThree layers
"Internetmodel""TCP/IP referencemodel"[16]"Internetmodel""Five-layer Internetmodel" or "TCP/IPprotocol suite""TCP/IP 5-layerreference model""TCP/IP model""Arpanet reference model"Application[14] [17]ApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplication/ProcessTransport[14]TransportTransportTransportTransportHost-to-host ortransportHost-to-hostInternet[14]InternetInternetworkNetworkInternetInternetLink [14]Host-to-networkNetworinterfaceData linkData link (Networinterface)Network accessNetwork interfacePhysical(Hardware)Physical
These textbooks are secondary sources that may contravene the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primarysources.
[18]
Different authors have interpreted the RFCs differently regarding the question whether the Link Layer (and theTCP/IP model) covers Physical Layer issues, or if a hardware layer is assumed below the Link Layer. Some authorshave tried to use other names for the Link Layer, such as
network interface layer 
, in view to avoid confusion with theData Link Layer of the seven layer OSI model. Others have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto theOSI Model. The mapping often results in a model with five layers where the Link Layer is split into a Data Link Layer on top of a Physical Layer. In literature with a bottom-up approach to Internet communication,
[10]
 
[11]
 
[13]
inwhich hardware issues are emphasized, those are often discussed in terms of Physical Layer and Data Link Layer.The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped into the OSI Model's Network Layer, a more general concept of network functionality. The Transport Layer of the TCP/IP model, sometimes also described as the host-to-host layer,is mapped to OSI Layer 4 (Transport Layer), sometimes also including aspects of OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer)functionality. OSI's Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and the remaining functionality of the Session Layer arecollapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer. The argument is that these OSI layers do usually not exist as separateprocesses and protocols in Internet applications.

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