Internet Protocol Suite3
DNS, TFTP, TLS/SSL, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP, POP3, SIP, SMTP, SMPP, SNMP, SSH, Telnet, Echo, RTP,PNRP, rlogin, ENRPRouting protocols like BGP and RIP which run over TCP/UDP, may also be considered part of the Internet Layer.
TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP, RSVP
IP (IPv4, IPv6), ICMP, IGMP, and ICMPv6OSPF for IPv4 was initially considered IP layer protocol since it runs per IP-subnet, but has been placed on the Link since RFC 2740.
ARP, RARP, OSPF (IPv4/IPv6), IS-IS, NDP
Layer names and number of layers in the literature
The following table shows the layer names and the number of layers of networking models presented in RFCs andtextbooks in widespread use in today's university computer networking courses.
RFC 1122TanenbaumCiscoAcademyKuroseForouzanComerKozierokStallingsArpanet ReferenceModel 1982 (RFC 871)
Four layersFive layersFour+one layersFive layersThree layers
"Internetmodel""TCP/IP referencemodel""Internetmodel""Five-layer Internetmodel" or "TCP/IPprotocol suite""TCP/IP 5-layerreference model""TCP/IP model""Arpanet reference model"Application ApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplication/ProcessTransportTransportTransportTransportTransportHost-to-host ortransportHost-to-hostInternetInternetInternetworkNetworkInternetInternetLink Host-to-networkNetwork interfaceData linkData link (Network interface)Network accessNetwork interfacePhysical(Hardware)Physical
These textbooks are secondary sources that may contravene the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primarysources.
Different authors have interpreted the RFCs differently regarding the question whether the Link Layer (and theTCP/IP model) covers Physical Layer issues, or if a hardware layer is assumed below the Link Layer. Some authorshave tried to use other names for the Link Layer, such as
network interface layer
, in view to avoid confusion with theData Link Layer of the seven layer OSI model. Others have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto theOSI Model. The mapping often results in a model with five layers where the Link Layer is split into a Data Link Layer on top of a Physical Layer. In literature with a bottom-up approach to Internet communication,
inwhich hardware issues are emphasized, those are often discussed in terms of Physical Layer and Data Link Layer.The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped into the OSI Model's Network Layer, a more general concept of network functionality. The Transport Layer of the TCP/IP model, sometimes also described as the host-to-host layer,is mapped to OSI Layer 4 (Transport Layer), sometimes also including aspects of OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer)functionality. OSI's Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and the remaining functionality of the Session Layer arecollapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer. The argument is that these OSI layers do usually not exist as separateprocesses and protocols in Internet applications.