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02-03ChapGere

# 02-03ChapGere

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02/12/2015

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106
Problem 2.5-3
Arigid bar of weight
750 lb hangs from threeequally spaced wires, two of steel and one of aluminum (see figure).The diameter of the wires is
1
⁄
8
in. Before they were loaded, all threewires had the same length.What temperature increase
in all three wires will result in theentire load being carried by the steel wires? (Assume
E
s
30
10
6
psi,
s
6.5
10
6
/°F, and
a
12
10
6
/°F.)
Solution 2.5-3
Barsupported by three wires
= 750 lb
S A S
S
steel
A
aluminum
750lb
E
s
30
10
6
psi
E
s
A
s
368,155lb
s
6.5
10
6
/
F
a
12
10
6
/
F
L
Initial length of wires
1
increase in length of a steel wire due totemperature increase
s
(
)
L A
s
2
4
0.012272

in.
2
18

in.
2
increase in length of a steel wire due to load
/2
3
increase in length of aluminum wire due totemperature increase
a
(
)
L
For no load in the aluminum wire:
1
2
3
orSubstitute numerical values:N
OTE
:If the temperature increase is larger than
,the aluminum wire would be in compression, whichis not possible. Therefore, the steel wires continue tocarry all of the load. If the temperature increase isless than
, the aluminum wire will be in tensionand carry part of the load.
185
F

¢
750

lb(2)(368,155

lb)(5.5
10
6

F)
¢
2
E
s

A
s
(
a
s
)
s
(
¢
)
L
WL
2
E
s

A
s
a
(
¢
)
L
WL
2
E
s

A
s
S A S
RigidBar
S A S
2
2
3
1
2

SECTION 2.5Thermal Effects
107
Problem 2.5-4
Asteel rod of diameter 15 mm is held snugly (butwithout any initial stresses) between rigid walls by the arrangementshown in the figure.Calculate the temperature drop
(degrees Celsius) at whichthe average shear stress in the 12-mm diameter bolt becomes 45 MPa.(For the steel rod, use
12
10
6
/°C and
E
200 GPa.)
Solution 2.5-4
Steel rod with bolted connection
15 mm12 mm diameter bolt
R
rod
B
bolt
P
tensile force in steel rod due to temperature drop
A
R
cross-sectional area of steel rodFrom Eq. (2-17) of Example 2-7:
P
EA
R
(
)Bolt is in double shear.
shear force acting over one cross section of thebolt

average shear stress on cross section of the bolt
A
B
cross-sectional area of bolt
t
A
B
EA
R

(
¢
)2
A
B
P

2
12
EA
R
(
¢
)S
UBSTITUTENUMERICALVALUES
:

45MPa
B
12mm
R
15mm
12
10
6
/
C
200GPa
¢
24
C

¢
2(45

MPa)(12

mm)
2
(200

GPa)(12
10
6

C)(15

mm)
2
¢
2
t
B
2
E
R
2
A
R
R
2
4
where

R
diameter

of

steel

rod
A
B
B
2
4
where

B
diameter

of

boltSolve

for

¢
:

¢
2
t
A
B
EA
R
15 mm12 mm diameter bolt
B R
Problem 2.5-5
Abar
AB
of length
L
is held between rigid supports andheated nonuniformly in such a manner that the temperature increase
atdistance
x
from end
A
is given by the expression
 
B
x
3
/
L
3
, where
B
is the increase in temperature at end
B
of the bar (see figure).Derive a formula for the compressive stress

c
in the bar. (Assumethat the material has modulus of elasticity
E
and coefficient of thermalexpansion
.)
L A
B
B x
0

108
Solution 2.5-5
Barwith nonuniform temperature change
At distance
x
:R
EMOVETHESUPPORTATEND
B
OFTHEBAR
:Consider an element
dx
at a distance
x
from end
A
.
¢
¢
B

¢
x
3
L
3
Elongation of element
dx
elongation of barC
OMPRESSIVEFORCE
P
REQUIREDTOSHORTENTHEBARBYTHEAMOUNT
C
OMPRESSIVESTRESSINTHEBAR
s
c
P A
E
(
¢
B
)4
P
EA
L
14
EA
(
¢
B
)
L
0
L
0
(
¢
B
)

¢
x
3
L
3

dx
14
(
¢
B
)
L
(
¢
)
dx
(
¢
B
)
¢
x
3
L
3

dx
L A
B
B x
0
L A B xdx
Problem 2.5-6
Aplastic bar
ACB
having two different solid circular crosssections is held between rigid supports as shown in the figure. The diametersin the left- and right-hand parts are 50 mm and 75 mm, respectively. Thecorresponding lengths are 225 mm and 300 mm. Also, the modulus of elasticity
E
is 6.0 GPa, and the coefficient of thermal expansion
is 100
10
6
/°C. Thebar is subjected to a uniform temperature increase of 30°C.Calculate the following quantities: (a) the compressive force
P
in the bar;(b) the maximum compressive stress

c
; and (c) the displacement
of point
.
Solution 2.5-6
Barwith rigid supports
300 mm75 mm225 mm
AB
50 mm300 mm75 mm225 mm
AB
50 mm
E
6.0GPa
100
10
6
/
CL
EFT
-
HANDPART
:
L
1
225mm
1
50mm
1963.5mm
2
T
30°C
A
1

4

12
4

(50

mm)
2
R
IGHT
-
HANDPART
:
L
2
300mm
2
75mm(a)C
OMPRESSIVEFORCE
P
Remove the support at end
B
.
A
2
4

22
4

(75

mm)
2
4417.9

mm
2
A B A BP L
1
L
2
A
1
A
2