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Published by: Kartik Patel on Aug 31, 2010
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STUDY ABOUT HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS.
 
8
TH
Sem Electrical Engg. Page 1
1)
 
GENERAL CONCEPT OF SUBUTATION:-
Electrical power station, substations and power lines are intended forgenerating, transmitting and distributing electrical energy among users. In present dayelectrical power system is A.C. i.e. electrical power is generated, transmitted anddistributed in the form of alternating current. The electrical power is produced at thepower stations which are located at favorable places. It is deliverable to the customerthrough a large network of transmission and distribution. This is accompanied bysuitable apparatus called substation.
 
A distinguished characteristic of power generation, transmission, anddistribution is continuity, which is due to the fact that electrical energy is consumed at the same time as produced and cannot be stored. Electrical power as the user needs at the moment (with allowance made for auxiliary power requirement and transmissionlosses).the demand for electric energy varies on both a daily and a yearly basis. Dailyvariation in power stations and line equipment should be rated for the peak load andready to give continuous trouble free service during busy hours.
FIG. 1  HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATION
Another distinguishing characteristic of power generation,transmission and distribution is that a electric power station and sub-station are for themost part interconnected by the power lines into an integrated system supplying powerto the users throughout an economical region. Therefore any trouble or fault at aspecific point or at any one of the substation will affect the performance of the entiresystem and may cause an interruption of power supply to the users. A power failureeven a small one greatly impairs functioning of induction enterprises, electric transport 
 
STUDY ABOUT HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS.
 
8
TH
Sem Electrical Engg. Page 2
and municipal utilities. The break down in the production process may result in damageto the products on line and to the production equipment.Power users are sensitive not only to the power failures but also tovariation from rated supply line voltage and frequency. A voltage drop slows down theelectric motors abruptly, browns out electric device, radio and TV sets, etc. A decreasesof output of the driven machinery and often involve a break down in production processand hence the manufacture of defective products. Therefore if a specific component of electric power plant is out of order, or its performance is erratic, it should be quicklydisconnected from the supply lines in order to reduce the harmful consequences of thefailures.
 
The voltage of generator at the power plants is usually, 6.6, 13.2 or15.7 KV to transmit the power over long distances the power and the distance in orderto reduce transmission losses and to affect the economy also the customer do not usesuch high voltage and so they must be transferred to 11 KV by means of the transformeras s/s which is further stepped down at 230 V phase to neutral by means of polemounted transformer. Thus s/s may be called as link between the generator andconsumer.
1.1
 
substation :-
The assembly of apparatus used to change some characteristic (e.g.voltage, current, frequency, p.f. etc.) of electric supply is called a Sub-station.
It is an assembly of apparatus which transformer. The characteristicsof electric energy of one form to another (say one voltage to another) i.e. link betweenthe power house and ultimate consumers. A no. of transformers and switching is knownas substation. Substations are important part of power system. The continuity of supplydepends to a considerable extent upon the successful operation of substations. It is,therefore, essential to execiseut most care while designing and building a substation.
 
 
STUDY ABOUT HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS.
 
8
TH
Sem Electrical Engg. Page 3
400KVBus
220KVBus
500MVA
400/220KVTransformer Incomingline
OutgoinglineOutgoinglineIncomingline
Fig-2 Simple schematic of sub-station lay-out
 
 
The
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 laying out a substation :-
1.
 
It should be located at a proper site. As far as possible, it should be located at thecenter of gravity of load.2.
 
It should provide safe and reliable arrangement. For safety, consideration must begiven to the maintenance of regulation clearances, facilities, for carrying out repairs andmaintenance, abnormal occurrences of regulation such as possibility of explosion or fireetc.3.
 
It should be easily operated and maintained.4.
 
It should involve minimum capital cost.
1.2 classification of Substation:-
There are several ways of classifying substations. However, the two most important ways of classifying them are according to (1) service requirement, (2) constructionalfuture.
1.
According to service requirement: -
 
A substation may be called upon tochange voltage level or improve power factor or convert a.c. power into d.c. poweretc. According to the service requirement, substation may be classified into:-

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